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Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a more serious form of gastroesophageal reflux (GER), which is common. GER occurs when the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) opens spontaneously, for varying periods of time, or does not close properly and stomach contents rise up into the esophagus. GER is also called acid reflux or acid regurgitation, because digestive juices—called acids—rise up with the food. The esophagus is the tube that carries food from the mouth to the stomach. The LES is a ring of muscle at the bottom of the esophagus that acts like a valve between the esophagus and stomach.
When acid reflux occurs, food or fluid can be tasted in the back of the mouth. When refluxed stomach acid touches the lining of the esophagus it may cause a burning sensation in the chest or throat called heartburn or acid indigestion. Occasional GER is common and does not necessarily mean one has GERD. Persistent reflux that occurs more than twice a week is considered GERD, and it can eventually lead to more serious health problems. People of all ages can have GERD
The reason some people develop GERD is still unclear. However, research shows that in people with GERD, the LES relaxes while the rest of the esophagus is working. Anatomical abnormalities such as a hiatal hernia may also contribute to GERD. A hiatal hernia occurs when the upper part of the stomach and the LES move above the diaphragm, the muscle wall that separates the stomach from the chest. Normally, the diaphragm helps the LES keep acid from rising up into the esophagus. When a hiatal hernia is present, acid reflux can occur more easily. A hiatal hernia can occur in people of any age and is most often a normal finding in otherwise healthy people over age 50. Most of the time, a hiatal hernia produces no symptoms.
Other factors that may contribute to GERD include
Common foods that can worsen reflux symptoms include
If you have had symptoms of GERD and have been using antacids or other over-the-counter reflux medications for more than 2 weeks. Your health care provider may refer you to a gastroenterologist, a doctor who treats diseases of the stomach and intestines. Depending on the severity of your GERD, treatment may involve one or more of the following lifestyle changes, medications, or surgery.
· Frequent heartburn, also called acid indigestion, is the most common symptom of GERD in adults. Anyone experiencing heartburn twice a week or more may have GERD.
· You can have GERD without having heartburn. Your symptoms could include a dry cough, asthma symptoms, or trouble swallowing.
· If you have been using antacids for more than 2 weeks, it is time to see your health care provider. Most doctors can treat GERD. Your health care provider may refer you to a gastroenterologist, a doctor who treats diseases of the stomach and intestines.
· Health care providers usually recommend lifestyle and dietary changes to relieve symptoms of GERD. Many people with GERD also need medication. Surgery may be considered as a treatment option.
· Most infants with GER are healthy even though they may frequently spit up or vomit. Most infants outgrow GER by their first birthday. Reflux that continues past 1 year of age may be GERD.
· The persistence of GER along with other symptoms—arching and irritability in infants, or abdominal and chest pain in older children—is GERD. GERD is the outcome of frequent and persistent GER in infants and children and may cause repeated vomiting, coughing, and respiratory problems.
Your health care provider may recommend over-the-counter antacids or medications that stop acid production or help the muscles that empty your stomach. You can buy many of these medications without a prescription. However, see your health care provider before starting or adding a medication.
Antacids, such as Alka-Seltzer, Maalox, Mylanta, Rolaids, and Riopan, are usually the first drugs recommended to relieve heartburn and other mild GERD symptoms. Many brands on the market use different combinations of three basic salts—magnesium, calcium, and aluminum—with hydroxide or bicarbonate ions to neutralize the acid in your stomach. Antacids, however, can have side effects. Magnesium salt can lead to diarrhea, and aluminum salt may cause constipation. Aluminum and magnesium salts are often combined in a single product to balance these effects.
Calcium carbonate antacids, such as Tums, Titralac, and Alka-2, can also be a supplemental source of calcium. They can cause constipation as well.
Foaming agents, such as Gaviscon, work by covering your stomach contents with foam to prevent reflux.
H2 blockers, such as cimetidine (Tagamet HB), famotidine (Pepcid AC), nizatidine (Axid AR), and ranitidine (Zantac 75), decrease acid production. They are available in prescription strength and over-the-counter strength. These drugs provide short-term relief and are effective for about half of those who have GERD symptoms.
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Even if you feel better after a few days of taking prescribed antibiotic medication for illness or infection, always take the entire bottle of pills. The last few pills kill the toughest germs. If you don't take all of them, you risk getting sick all over again. Not taking the full prescription can also contribute to antibiotic resistance.
There is no single known cause of depression. Rather, it likely results from a combination of genetic, biochemical, environmental, and psychological factors.
Research indicates that depressive illnesses are disorders of the brain. Brain-imaging technologies, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), have shown that the brains of people who have depression look different than those of people without depression. The parts of the brain responsible for regulating mood, thinking, sleep, appetite and behavior appear to function abnormally. In addition, important neurotransmitters–chemicals that brain cells use to communicate–appear to be out of balance. But these images do not reveal why the depression has occurred.
Some types of depression tend to run in families, suggesting a genetic link. However, depression can occur in people without family histories of depression as well. Genetics research indicates that risk for depression results from the influence of multiple genes acting together with environmental or other factors.
In addition, trauma, loss of a loved one, a difficult relationship, or any stressful situation may trigger a depressive episode. Subsequent depressive episodes may occur with or without an obvious trigger.
effective medications are available to treat depression. Called
antidepressants, these drugs appear to correct an imbalance in brain
chemistry- more specifically, such as serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine
that are often deficient in cases of depression.
People with depressive illnesses do not all experience the same symptoms. The severity, frequency and duration of symptoms will vary depending on the individual and his or her particular illness.
It often takes two to four
weeks for antidepressants to start having an effect and six to 12 weeks for
antidepressants to have their
• Selective serotonin
reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) act specifically on the neurotransmitter
serotonin. They are the most common
• Serotonin and
norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are the second-most popular
antidepressants worldwide. These agents
• Mirtazapine (Remeron) works
differently from the compounds discussed above. Mirtazapine targets specific
• Tricyclic antidepressants
(TCAs) are older agents seldom used now as first-line treatment. They work
similarly to the SNRIs, but
• Monoamine oxidase
inhibitors (MAOIs) are also seldom used now. They work by inactivating
enzymes in the brain which catabolize
adjunctive agents. Often psychiatrists will combine the antidepressants
mentioned above with each other (we
Women experience twice the rate of depression as men, regardless of race or ethnic background. Researchers suspect that many factors unique to women’s lives play a role.
Depression is not a normal part of aging, and studies
show that most seniors feel satisfied with their lives, despite increased
physical ailments. However, when older adults do have depression, it may be
overlooked because seniors may show different, less obvious symptoms, and may
be less inclined to experience or acknowledge feelings of sadness or grief.
You may be able to avoid some episodes of depression by:
Dysthymia generally occurs during early adulthood, although it can also occur in children and adolescents. Its onset is gradual, so it is difficult to accurately pinpoint the exact time when it begins.
Treatment for Dysthymic Disorder begins with chemical anti-depressants. There are a number of different classes of antidepressants, including the tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, monamine-oxidase inhibitors to name a few. Each class acts differently upon the body, offering the person a wide variety of options that can be tried in order to control their depression.
As its name implies, unspecified depression is a form of depression that does not fall into any general categories. The inability to label this kind of depression does not imply that it is somehow more serious; in fact, unspecified depression is often a less severe form of depression than identifiable forms. Some can be diagnosed with unspecified depression if they have been suffering with symptoms of depression long enough that it can be considered to be a dysthymic disorder (usually two years). What can become unspecified depression is a condition that was thought to have been related to a certain event, but enough time has passed since the event to rule this out.
The most effective treatment for unspecified depression is cognitive therapy, which focuses on dealing with the patient's belief system. Cognitive therapy is a technique that helps the patient understand his or her reasoning process, which produces the emotions that accompany depression. Medication may be used along with cognitive therapy, but in mild cases, it is not necessary. Hospitalization is required only in serious cases. Family or marital counseling might also be included in the treatment package if the depression seems to have been triggered by or is affecting a spouse or family members.
Since cognitive therapy has been shown to be an effective way of treating depression, prognosis for recovery from unspecified depression is very good as long as the patient stays with the treatment program long enough for significant improvement. Cognitive therapy is not as radical a cure as many others, and it might take more time to see results.
A person with adjustment disorder develops emotional and/or behavioral symptoms as a reaction to a stressful event. These symptoms generally begin within three months of the event and rarely last for longer than six months after the event or situation. In an adjustment disorder, the reaction to the stressor is greater than what is typical or expected for the situation or event. In addition, the symptoms may cause problems with a person's ability to function; for example, the person may be unable to sleep, work or study.
Adjustment disorder is not the same as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD generally occurs as a reaction to a life-threatening event and tends to last longer. Adjustment disorder, on the other hand, is short-term, rarely lasting longer than six months.
An adjustment disorder can have a wide variety of symptoms, which may include:
Symptoms in children and teens tend to be more behavioral in nature, such as skipping school, fighting or acting out. Adults, on the other hand, tend to experience more emotional symptoms, such as sadness and anxiety.
Adjustment disorder is very common and can affect anyone, regardless of gender, age, race or lifestyle. Although an adjustment disorder can occur at any age, it is more common at times in life when major transitions occur, such as adolescence, mid-life and late-life.
Bipolar disorder typically begins in adolescence or early adulthood and continues throughout life. It is often not recognized as a psychological problem, because it is episodic. Consequently, those who have it may suffer needlessly for years without treatment.
Effective treatment is available for bipolar disorder. Without treatment, marital breakups, job loss, alcohol and drug abuse, and suicide may result from the chronic, episodic mood swings. The most significant treatment issue is noncompliance with treatment. Most individuals with bipolar disorder do not perceive their manic episodes as needing treatment, and they resist entering treatment. In fact, most people report feeling very good during the beginning of a manic episode, and don't want it to stop. This is a serious judgment problem. As the manic episode progresses, concentration becomes difficult, thinking becomes more grandiose, and problems develop. Unfortunately, the risk taking behavior usually results in significant painful consequences such as loss of a job or a relationship, running up excessive debts, or getting into legal difficulties. Many individuals with bipolar disorder abuse drugs or alcohol during manic episodes, and some of these develop secondary substance abuse problems.
A manic episode is an abnormally elevated, expansive or irritable mood, not related to substance abuse or a medical condition, that lasts for at least a week, and includes a number of disturbances in behavior and thinking that results in significant life adjustment problems. Chronic behavior that appears somewhat similar to manic behavior is more likely ADHD or evidence of personality problem.
A Manic Episode
Tricyclic antidepressants also can cause side effects including:
(ASD) is a disorder that is usually first diagnosed in early childhood. The
main signs and symptoms of autism involve communication, social interactions
and repetitive behaviors. Parents should talk to their pediatrician if a baby
shows any signs of these below:
Children with autism might have problems talking with you, or they might not look you when you talk to them. They may have to place whatever they are working with in a specific order before they can pay attention, or they may say the same sentence again and again. They may flap their arms when they are happy, or they might hurt themselves when they are not. Some people with autism never learn how to talk. This depends entirely on the type of autism they have.
Because people with autism can have very different features or symptoms, health care providers think of autism as a "spectrum" disorder. Asperger syndrome being a milder version of the disorder.
1 in 59 children
in the united states today have an autism
spectrum disorder (ASD). Autism is a national health
Heart Tip: Eating Margarine can increase Heart disease in women by 53% over eating the same amount of butter, according to a Harvard Medical study
A No-No Tip: A quarter cup of ranch (non fat-free) dressing, can add 340 calories and 36 grams of fat.
Is characterized by an alternating pattern of emotional highs (mania) and lows (depression). The intensity of the associated signs and symptoms varies. Bipolar disorder can range from a mild condition to a severe condition, and there may be periods of normal behavior.
Are you drinking enough fluids? You can tell if you are not drinking enough, as your urine color should be pale or colorless, if you are not, it will be yellowish or dark yellow. Drink plenty of fluids during the day., If bladder control is a problem for you, limit drinks with caffeine and alcohol. They can increase the amount of urine and can make your urge to urinate stronger.
The most common type of urinary tract infection is a bladder infection, which is also often called cystitis. Cystitis meaning an inflammation of the bladder. The other kind is a kidney infection, which is also known as pyelonephritis. This infection can be very serious, but treated quickly, the kidney is most often not permanently damaged.
The cause and discomfort of urinary tract infections are usually treated easily, but you must contact your health care provider promptly for treatment.
antibiotics begin fighting the infection immediately, they do not stop all
the symptoms immediately. If you have a lot of pain, your physician may
recommend a medication to relieve the pain in your bladder, This medicine
will clear up the painful symptoms in about 2-3 days, usually you will
become more comfortable within 12 hours. It's important to take the
antibiotics until the prescription is finished, that means the whole
prescribed regime. Although antibiotics begin fighting the infection right
away, they can't stop all the symptoms right away. it is important that you
take the antibiotics until the prescription is finished. Your infection will
normal be gone in 7-10 days. Many people stop taking the medication when they
begin to feel better, but that doesn't allow the antibiotics to completely
kill the bacteria, which increases the risk that the infection will return.
The majority of bladder infections are caused by the bacteria Escherichia coli. When the bacteria (e-coli) passes through the urethra, they can get inside the bladder and cause an infection. Some females get urinary tract infections more frequently, this may be because of the differences in the shape and length of the urethra in different people. Males have fewer bladder infections than females, likely due to the length of the shorter urethra in females.
Ear cleaning Tip: Cotton swabs and other small items such as hairpins may actually push ear wax deeper into the ear and damage the ear canal or eardrum, resulting in hearing loss. In most cases, the ear actually cleans itself. Old wax makes its way to the opening of the ear canal, where it falls out or is washed away. cleaning the outer ear with a washcloth can usually help this process.
Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States. Half of all men and one third of all women in the United States will develop cancer during their lifetime and Cancer is not just one disease but many diseases.
Cancer types: aggressive (fast-growing) or indolent (slow-growing)
Melanoma can spread very rapidly. Although it is less common than other types of skin cancer, the rate of melanoma is steadily increasing. It is the leading cause of death from skin disease.
The risk of developing melanoma increases with age, but the disease also frequently affects young, otherwise healthy people.
Melanoma may appear on normal skin, or it may begin at a mole or other area that has changed in appearance. Some moles present at birth may develop into melanomas.
The development of melanoma is related to sun exposure, particularly to sunburns during childhood. It is most common among people with fair skin, blue or green eyes, and red or blond hair.
Risk factors include the following:
The primary symptom of any skin cancer is usually a mole, sore, lump, or growth on the skin. Any change in appearance of a pigmented skin sore over time is a warning sign. Also, watch for any bleeding from a skin growth.
The ABCD system may help you remember features that might be symptoms of melanoma:
The key to treating melanoma is recognizing symptoms early. You might not notice a small spot of concern if you don't look carefully, so perform thorough self-examinations monthly, and schedule a formal skin exam with a dermatologist yearly.
This year, over eleven thousand women
will be diagnosed with cervical cancer.
Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is cancer that originates in your lymphatic system, the disease-fighting network spread throughout your body. In non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, tumors develop from lymphocytes — a type of white blood cell.
Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is more than five times as common as the other general type of lymphoma — Hodgkin's disease. And Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma has been increasing in incidence in the United States since the 1970s.
The most common type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma is diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, which accounts for about a third of the cases in the United States. About one-fourth of non-Hodgkin lymphomas involve one of two related diseases, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL). Other forms include follicular lymphoma, various marginal zone lymphomas, and several kinds of peripheral T-cell lymphomas. Forms that each account for a tiny percentage of all lymphomas include mantle-cell lymphoma, primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma, Burkitt lymphoma, and lymphoplasmocytic lymphoma.
In children, the most common types are lymphoblastic lymphoma, small noncleaved cell lymphoma (which may be Burkitt or non-Burkitt lymphoma), and large cell lymphoma.
There are two basic categories of lymphomas: Hodgkin's lymphoma (also called Hodgkin's disease) and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. The difference between these is in the specific lymphocytes involved. Hodgkin's lymphoma is marked by the presence of an abnormal lymphocyte called the Reed-Sternberg cell (or B lymphocyte). Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL) include all other types of lymphomas. NHL develops from white blood cells in other parts of the lymphatic system, including the bone marrow, spleen, thymus and lymph nodes. There are more than 30 different types of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, including types.aggressive (fast-growing) or indolent (slow-growing).
Lymphomas may cause many different signs and symptoms, depending on the type of lymphoma and where it is found in the body. Potential lymphoma symptoms include but not limited to:
-Swelling in the lymph nodes in the neck, groin, armpit
It is important to remember that these potential symptoms may be attributed to a number of conditions other than cancer, such as an infection or other illness. Only a medical professional make this determination.
Several factors affect the choice of treatment, including the type and stage of your lymphoma, your age, and your overall medical condition. The main treatment options include:
· Chemotherapy. Doctors use a combination of drugs — given orally or by injection — against fast-growing cancer cells. This combined treatment approach is used for intermediate- and high-grade lymphomas and advanced stages of low-grade lymphomas. A single drug may be used if you have a low-grade type of the disease.
· Radiation. High doses of radiation kill cancerous cells and shrink tumors. This treatment is for early stages of low-grade lymphomas. Sometimes, it's used along with chemotherapy on intermediate-grade tumors or to treat specific sites, such as the brain.
· Stem cell transplantation. Lymphomas tend to be sensitive to chemotherapy. However, if lymphoma recurs, higher doses of chemotherapy may be necessary to treat the disease. The amount of chemotherapy that can be given is limited because of the damage chemotherapy does to your bone marrow. In order to avoid this serious side effect, healthy stem cells — those capable of producing new cells — are taken from your blood or bone marrow and frozen. After you undergo very high doses of chemotherapy to kill the lymphoma, the healthy stem cells are thawed and injected back into your body. This treatment is used primarily to treat intermediate- or high-grade lymphomas that relapse after initial, successful treatment.
· Observation. If your lymphoma appears to be slow growing, a wait and see approach may be an option. Slowly growing lymphomas with few symptoms may not require treatment for a year or more.
· Biotherapy. Rituximab (Rituxan) is approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Rituximab is a type of monoclonal antibody that helps the immune system specifically target and destroy cancer cells. Rituximab is frequently used in combination with chemotherapy. It's also sometimes given in tandem with radioimmunotherapy.
· Radioimmunotherapy. Two radioimmunotherapy drugs — ibritumomab (Zevalin) and tositumomab (Bexxar) — are currently FDA-approved. Radioimmunotherapy uses monoclonal antibodies combined with radioactive isotopes. The antibodies attach themselves to the cancer cells, while the added radiation helps destroy the cancer cells. Radioimmunotherapy is generally well tolerated; however, serious side effects, including reduced blood cell counts, hemorrhage and life-threatening infections, are possible with these medications. That's why the FDA has approved their use only after other treatments have failed.
· Interferon therapy. Interferons are proteins that occur naturally in your body to help fight viral infection and regulate your immune system. Some research suggests that genetically engineered interferon can slow or stop the progression of some types of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. More studies are needed to determine whether interferon medications are an effective treatment for this disease.
Cardiomyopathy can be classified as primary or secondary. Primary cardiomyopathy can't be attributed to a specific cause, such as high blood pressure, heart valve disease, artery diseases or congenital heart defects. Secondary cardiomyopathy is due to specific causes. It's often associated with diseases involving other organs as well as the heart.
There are three main types of cardiomyopathy: dilated, hypertrophic and restrictive.
Blood flows more slowly through an enlarged heart, so blood clots may form. A blood clot that forms in an artery or the heart is called a thrombus. A clot that breaks free, circulates in the bloodstream and blocks a small blood vessel is called an embolus.
In these young patients the heart condition is often associated with changes in the skeletal muscles, short stature and an increased likelihood of catching bacterial infections. They also have neutropenia, which is a decrease in the number of white blood cells known as neutrophils. There are clinical signs of the cardiomyopathy in the newborn child or within the first months of life. These children also have metabolic and mitochondrial abnormalities.
When cardiomyopathy results in a significantly enlarged heart, the mitral and tricuspid valves may not be able to close properly, resulting in murmurs. Blood pressure may increase because of increased sympathetic nerve activity. These nerves can also cause arteries to narrow. This mimics hypertensive heart disease (high blood pressure). That's why some people have high blood pressure readings. Because the blood pressure determines the heart's workload and oxygen needs, one treatment approach is to use vasodilators (drugs that "relax" the arteries). They lower blood pressure and thus the left ventricle's workload.
In up to 70% of cases, there is a family history of this condition. In this condition, the muscle mass of the left ventricle enlarges or "hypertrophies."
In one form of the disease, the wall (septum) between the two ventricles (pumping chamber) becomes enlarged and obstructs the blood flow from the left ventricle. The syndrome is known as hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (H.O.C.M.) or asymmetric septal hypertrophy (A.S.H.). It's also called idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis (I.H.S.S.).
Besides obstructing blood flow, the thickened wall sometimes distorts one leaflet of the mitral valve, causing it to leak. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is the most common inherited heart defect. Close blood relatives (parents, children or siblings) of such persons often have enlarged septums, although they may have no symptoms. This disease is most common in young adults.
In the other form of the disease, non-obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, the enlarged muscle doesn't obstruct blood flow.
The symptoms of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy include shortness of breath on exertion, dizziness, fainting and angina pectoris. (Angina is chest pain or discomfort caused by reduced blood supply to the heart muscle.) Some people have cardiac arrhythmias. These are abnormal heart rhythms that in some cases can lead to sudden death. Often an implanted cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) is needed to shock the heart to restart a normal heart rhythm and prevent sudden death. The obstruction to blood flow from the left ventricle increases the ventricle's work, and a heart murmur may be heard.
Alcohol ablation is a type of nonsurgical treatment for hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy. It involves injecting alcohol down a small branch of one of the heart arteries to deaden the extra heart muscle. This allows the extra heart muscle to thin out without having to cut it out surgically.
Possible medications include:
In some individuals with severely weak pumping function of the heart and severe heart failure, a special pacemaker, called a biventricular pacemaker, may be needed. It makes the contraction of the left and right bottom chambers (ventricles) more efficient. In very specific cases, biventricular pacemakers with defibrillation functions are used.
You are more likely to develop carotid artery disease as you age. Only 1 percent of adults age 50 to 59 have significantly narrowed carotid arteries, but 10 percent of adults age 80 to 89 have this problem.
Your arteries are normally smooth and unobstructed on the inside, but as you age, a sticky substance called plaque can build up in the walls of your arteries. Plaque is made up of cholesterol, calcium, and fibrous tissue. As more plaque builds up, your arteries narrow and stiffen. This process is called atherosclerosis, or hardening of the arteries. Eventually, when enough plaque builds up to reduce or disturb blood flow through your carotid arteries, physicians call this problem carotid artery disease. Carotid artery disease is a serious health problem because it can cause a stroke.
deposits are soft and are prone to cracking or forming roughened, irregular
areas inside the artery. If this happens, your body will respond as if
you were injured and flood the cracked and irregular area with blood-clotting
cells called platelets. A large blood clot may then form in your carotid
artery or one of its branches. If the clot blocks the artery enough to slow
or stop blood and oxygen flow to your brain, it could cause a stroke. More
commonly, a piece of the plaque itself, or a clot, breaks off from the plaque
deposit and travels through your bloodstream. This particle can then lodge in
a smaller artery in your brain and cause a stroke by blocking the artery.
Carotid artery disease may not cause symptoms in its early stages.
Unfortunately, the first sign of carotid artery disease could be a stroke. However, you may experience warning symptoms of a stroke called transient ischemic attacks, or TIAs. Symptoms of a TIA usually last for a few minutes to 1 hour and include:
weakness, numbness, or a tingling sensation on one side of your body, for
example, in an arm or a leg.
Your treatment will depend on the severity of your condition, and whether or not you are having symptoms from the carotid artery disease, as well as your general health. As a first step, your vascular surgeon may recommend medications and the lifestyle changes.
If you have any other medical conditions, for example, if you have diabetes, be sure to monitor and control your blood sugar levels. If you have high blood pressure, your physician may prescribe medications to lower it. If you are smoking, you should quit. Your physician will check your cholesterol levels regularly to be sure they stay within normal limits, he may also medications such as statins to reduce high cholesterol.
You may require surgery if your carotid artery disease is severe or has progressed. Signs of severe disease include having TIA symptoms, having experienced a stroke in the past, or just having a severely narrowed carotid artery even without symptoms.
Pain does not take a holiday
Shawn Gay D.C. Washington State
Chiropractic is a branch of the healing arts which is based upon the understanding that good health depends, in part, upon a normally functioning nervous system (especially the spine, and the nerves extending from the spine to all parts of the body). Chiropractic is a drug-free, non-surgical science and, as such, does not include pharmaceuticals or incisive surgery, instead by locating and adjusting a musculoskeletal area of the body which is functioning improperly.
Chiropractors use a standard procedure of examination to diagnose a patient's condition and arrive at a course of treatment. Doctors of chiropractic use the same time-honored methods of consultation, case history, physical examination, laboratory analysis and x-ray examination as any other doctor. In addition, they provide a careful chiropractic structural examination, paying particular attention to the spine.
The examination of the spine to evaluate structure and function is what makes chiropractic different from other health care procedures. Your spinal column is a series of movable bones which begin at the base of your skull and end in the center of your hips. Thirty-one pairs of spinal nerves extend down the spine from the brain and exit through a series of openings. The nerves leave the spine and form a complicated network which influences every living tissue in your body.
falls, stress, tension, overexertion, and countless other factors can result
in a displacements or derangements of the spinal column, causing irritation
to spinal nerve roots. These irritations are often what cause malfunctions in
the human body in areas such as the back, neck, extremities, and joints.
Chiropractic teaches that reducing or eliminating this irritation to spinal
nerves can cause your body to operate more efficiently and more comfortably.
Chiropractic Perspectives That Reflect a Holistic Approach to Patient Care
· noninvasive, emphasizes patient's inherent recuperative abilities
· recognizes dynamics between lifestyle, environment, and health
· emphasizes understanding the cause of illness in an effort to eradicate, rather than palliate, associated symptoms
· recognizes the centrality of the nervous system and its intimate relationship with both the structural and regulatory capacities of the body
· appreciates the multifactorial nature of influences (structural, chemical, and psychological) on the nervous system
· balances the benefits against the risks of clinical interventions
· recognizes as imperative the need to monitor progress and effectiveness through appropriate diagnostic procedures
· prevents unnecessary barriers in the doctor-patient encounter
· emphasizes a patient-centered, hands-on approach intent on influencing function through structure
· strives toward early intervention, emphasizing timely diagnosis and treatment of functional, reversible conditions
Source: AHCPR Chapter 2 Chiropractic Belief Systems, Robert D. Mootz DC; Reed B. Phillips DC, PhD
Some suggestions for you to follow:
REST, RELAXATION AND SLEEP
Cholesterol is a soft, waxy substance found among the lipids (fats) in the bloodstream and in all your body's cells. It's an important part of a healthy body because it's used to form cell membranes, some hormones and is needed for other functions. But a high level of cholesterol in the blood — hypercholesterolemia — is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease, which leads to heart attack.
Cholesterol and other fats can't dissolve in the blood. They have to be transported to and from the cells by special carriers called lipoproteins. There are several kinds, but the ones to focus on are low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL).
Low-density lipoprotein is the major cholesterol carrier in the blood. If too much LDL cholesterol circulates in the blood, it can slowly build up in the walls of the arteries feeding the heart and brain. Together with other substances it can form plaque, a thick, hard deposit that can clog those arteries. This condition is known as atherosclerosis. A clot (thrombus) that forms near this plaque can block the blood flow to part of the heart muscle and cause a heart attack. If a clot blocks the blood flow to part of the brain, a stroke results. A high level of LDL cholesterol (160 mg/dL and above) reflects an increased risk of heart disease. If you have heart disease, your LDL cholesterol should be less than 100 mg/dL and your doctor may even set your goal to be less than 70 mg/dL. That's why LDL cholesterol is called "bad" cholesterol. Lower levels of LDL cholesterol reflect a lower risk of heart disease.
About one-third to one-fourth of blood cholesterol is carried by HDL. Medical experts think HDL tends to carry cholesterol away from the arteries and back to the liver, where it's passed from the body. Some experts believe HDL removes excess cholesterol from plaques and thus slows their growth. HDL cholesterol is known as "good" cholesterol because a high HDL level seems to protect against heart attack. The opposite is also true: a low HDL level (less than 40 mg/dL in men; less than 50 mg/dL in women) indicates a greater risk. A low HDL cholesterol level also may raise stroke risk.
Lp(a) is a genetic variation of plasma LDL. A high level of Lp(a) is an important risk factor for developing atherosclerosis prematurely. How an increased Lp(a) contributes to heart disease isn't clear. The lesions in artery walls contain substances that may interact with Lp(a), leading to the buildup of fatty deposits.
People get cholesterol in two ways. The body — mainly the liver — produces varying amounts, usually about 1,000 milligrams a day. Foods also can contain cholesterol. Foods from animals (especially egg yolks, meat, poultry, shellfish and whole- and reduced-fat milk and dairy products) contain it. Foods from plants (fruits, vegetables, grains, nuts and seeds) don't contain cholesterol.
Typically the body makes all the cholesterol it needs, so people don't need to consume it. Saturated fatty acids are the main culprit in raising blood cholesterol, which increases your risk of heart disease. Trans fats also raise blood cholesterol. But dietary cholesterol also plays a part. The average American man consumes about 337 milligrams of cholesterol a day; the average woman, 217 milligrams.
Some of the excess dietary cholesterol is removed from the body through the liver. Still, the American Heart Association recommends that you limit your average daily cholesterol intake to less than 300 milligrams. If you have heart disease, limit your daily intake to less than 200 milligrams. Still, everyone should remember that by keeping their dietary intake of saturated and trans fats low, they can significantly lower their dietary cholesterol intake. Foods high in saturated fat generally contain substantial amounts of dietary cholesterol.
People with severe high blood cholesterol levels may need an even greater reduction. Since cholesterol is in all foods from animal sources, care must be taken to eat no more than six ounces of lean meat, fish and poultry per day and to use fat-free and low-fat dairy products. High-quality proteins from vegetable sources such as beans are good substitutes for animal sources of protein.
Regular physical activity increases HDL cholesterol in some people. A higher HDL cholesterol is linked with a lower risk of heart disease. Physical activity can also help control weight, diabetes and high blood pressure. Aerobic physical activity raises your heart and breathing rates. Regular moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity such as brisk walking, jogging and swimming also condition your heart and lungs.
Physical inactivity is a major risk factor for heart disease. Even moderate-intensity activities, if done daily, help reduce your risk. Examples are walking for pleasure, gardening, yard work, housework, dancing and prescribed home exercise.
Tobacco smoke is one of the six major risk factors of heart disease that you can change or treat. Smoking lowers HDL cholesterol levels and increases the tendency for blood to clot.
In some studies, moderate use of alcohol is linked with higher HDL cholesterol levels. However, because of other risks, the benefit isn't great enough to recommend drinking alcohol if you don't do so already.
If you drink, do so in moderation. People who consume moderate amounts of alcohol (an average of one to two drinks per day for men and one drink per day for women) have a lower risk of heart disease than nondrinkers. However, increased consumption of alcohol brings other health dangers, such as alcoholism, high blood pressure, obesity, stroke, cancer, suicide, etc. Given these and other risks, the American Heart Association cautions people against increasing their alcohol intake or starting to drink if they don't already do so. Consult your doctor for advice on consuming alcohol in moderation.
Dietary fiber is the term for several materials in the parts of plants that your body can't digest. Fruits, vegetables, some whole-grain foods, beans and legumes are all good sources of dietary fiber. Fiber is classified as soluble or insoluble. The American Heart Association Eating Plan suggests that you eat foods high in both types of fiber.
When regularly eaten as part of a diet low in saturated fat, trans fat and cholesterol, soluble fiber has been shown to help lower blood cholesterol. Foods high in soluble fiber include oat bran, oatmeal, beans, peas, rice bran, barley, citrus fruits, strawberries and apple pulp.
Insoluble fiber doesn't seem to help lower blood cholesterol. But it's an important aid in normal bowel function. Foods high in insoluble fiber include whole-wheat breads, wheat cereals, wheat bran, cabbage, beets, carrots, Brussels sprouts, turnips, cauliflower and apple skin.
Many commercial oat bran and wheat bran products (muffins, chips, waffles) actually contain very little bran. They may also be high in sodium, total fat, saturated fat and trans fat. We recommend reading the labels on all packaged foods.
is not a specific disease. It is a descriptive term for a collection of
symptoms that can be caused by a number of disorders that affect the brain.
People with dementia have significantly impaired intellectual functioning
that interferes with normal activities and relationships. They also lose
their ability to solve problems and maintain emotional control, and they may
experience personality changes and behavioral problems, such as agitation,
delusions, and hallucinations. While memory loss is a common symptom of
dementia, memory loss by itself does not mean that a person has dementia.
Doctors diagnose dementia only if two or more brain functions - such as
memory and language skills -- are significantly impaired without loss of
consciousness. Some of the diseases that can cause symptoms of dementia
Memory loss is a common symptom of dementia. However, memory loss by itself does not mean you have dementia. People with dementia have serious problems with two or more brain functions, such as memory and language.
Dementia is a word for a group of symptoms caused by
disorders that affect the brain. It is not a specific disease. People with
dementia may not be able to think well enough to do normal activities, such
as getting dressed or eating. They may lose their ability to solve problems
or control their emotions. Their personalities may change. They may become
agitated or see things that are not there.
An increasing body of evidence suggests that some with Alzheimer's disease appear to benefit from effects of the antioxidants present in grapes, cocoa, blueberries, and green teas on cardiovascular health. Oxidants restrict the neuro-transmitters from properly sending and receiving in the brain.
A nutraceutical is a food or part of a food that allegedly provides medicinal or health benefits,
A Fasting blood glucose test can tell you if your have diabetes.
when the body does not make enough insulin, does not use insulin effectively,
or both. Clumps of cells called islets in the pancreas make insulin. Insulin is a hormone that helps the body use glucose, the body's main energy
Type 2 diabetes is far more common,
accounting for about 90 percent of all cases. In type 2, beta cells make
insulin, but the body is resistant to the hormone. Insulin is supposed to
help the body's cells take up and use glucose, but for some reason, cells do
not respond as they should. Beta cells are overworked and, in some people,
they wear out and stop making the right amount of insulin.
Many people with type 2 diabetes never show any signs. But some people do show symptoms. The most common symptoms of type 2 diabetes are:
These symptoms are caused by high blood sugar. Some may
seem minor. With time, they can lead to much more serious health problems.
But, if you manage your blood sugar now, you may avoid future complications
of diabetes later.
-Burn 100 Calories-
Fruits, Vegetables, and Cardiovascular Disease
Free radicals generated by sunlight,
cigarette smoke, air pollution, infection,
EXTRACT FROM DOUG COPP'S ARTICLE ON THE: "TRIANGLE OF LIFE"
The information in this article will save lives in an earthquake.
I have crawled inside 875 collapsed buildings, worked with rescue teams from 60 countries, founded rescue teams in several countries, and I am a member of many rescue teams from many countries. I was the United Nations expert in Disaster Mitigation for two years. I have worked at every major disaster in the world since 1985, except for simultaneous disasters.
The first building I ever crawled inside of was a school in Mexico City during the 1985 earthquake! Every child was under its desk. Every child was crushed to the thickness of their bones. They could have survived by lying down next to their desks in the aisles. It was obscene, unnecessary and I wondered why the children were not in the aisles. I didn't at the time know that the children were told to hide under something.
Simply stated, when buildings collapse, the weight of the ceilings falling upon the objects or furniture inside crushes these objects, leaving a space or void next to them. This space is what I call the "triangle of life". The larger the object, the stronger, the less it will compact. The less the object compacts, the larger the void, the greater the probability that the person who is using this void for! Safety will not be injured.
The next time you watch collapsed buildings, on television, count the "triangles" you see formed. They are everywhere. It is the most common shape, you will see, in a collapsed building.
TIPS FOR EARTHQUAKE SAFETY
1) Most everyone who simply "ducks and covers" WHEN BUILDINGS COLLAPSE are crushed to death. People who get under objects, like desks or cars, are crushed.
2) Cats, dogs and babies often naturally curl up in the fetal position. You should too in an earthquake. It is a natural safety/survival instinct. You can survive in a smaller void. Get next to an object, next to a sofa, next to a large bulky object that will compress slightly but leave a void next to it.
3) Wooden buildings are the safest type of construction to be in during an earthquake. Wood is flexible and moves with the force of the earthquake. If the wooden building does collapse, large survival voids are created. Also, the wooden building has less concentrated, crushing weight. Brick buildings will break into individual bricks. Bricks will cause many injuries but less squashed bodies than concrete slabs.
4) If you are in bed during the night and an earthquake occurs, simply roll off the bed. A safe void will exist around the bed. Hotels can achieve a much greater survival rate in earthquakes, simply by posting a sign on the back of the door of every room telling occupants to lie down on the floor, next to the bottom of the bed during an earthquake.
5) If an earthquake happens and you cannot easily escape by getting out the door or window, then lie down and curl up in the fetal position next to a sofa, or large chair.
6) Most everyone who gets under a doorway when buildings collapse is killed. How? If you stand under a doorway and the doorjamb falls forward or backward you will be crushed by the ceiling above. If the door jam falls sideways you will be cut in half by the doorway. In either case, you will be killed!
7) Never go to the stairs. The stairs have a different "moment of frequency" (they swing separately from the main part of the building). The stairs and remainder of the building continuously bump into each other until structural failure of the stairs takes place. The people who get on stairs before they fail are hopped up by the stair treads ‑ horribly mutilated. Even if the building doesn't collapse, stay away from the stairs. The stairs are a likely part of the building to be damaged. Even if the stairs are not collapsed by the earthquake, they may collapse later when overloaded by fleeing people. They should always be checked for safety, even when the rest of the building is not damaged.
8) Get Near the Outer Walls Of Buildings Or Outside Of Them If Possible ‑ It is much better to be near the outside of the building rather than the interior. The farther inside you are from the outside perimeter of the building the greater the probability that your escape route will be blocked.
9) People inside of their vehicles are crushed when the road above falls in an earthquake and crushes their vehicles; which is exactly what happened with the slabs between the decks of the Nimitz Freeway. The victims of the San Francisco earthquake all stayed inside of their vehicles. They were all killed. They could have easily survived by getting out and sitting or lying next to their vehicles. Everyone killed would have survived if they had been able to get out of their cars and sit or lie next to them. All the crushed cars had voids 3 feet high next to them, except for the cars that had columns fall directly across them.
10) I discovered, while crawling inside of collapsed newspaper offices and other offices with a lot of paper, that paper does not compact. Large voids are found surrounding stacks of paper.
Spread the word and save someone's life... The Entire world is experiencing natural calamities so be prepared! "We are but angels with one wing, it takes two to fly"
In 1996 we made a film, which proved my survival methodology to be correct. The Turkish Federal Government, City of Istanbul, University of Istanbul Case Productions and ARTI cooperated to film this practical, scientific test. We collapsed a school and a home with 20 mannequins inside. Ten mannequins did "duck and cover," and ten mannequins I used in my "triangle of life" survival method . After the simulated earthquake collapse we crawled through the rubble and entered the building to film and document the results. The film, in which I practiced my survival techniques under directly observable, scientific conditions, relevant to building collapse, showed there would have been zero percent survival for those doing duck and cover.
There would likely have been 100 percent survivability for people using my method of the "triangle of life." This film has been seen by millions of viewers on television in Turkey and the rest of Europe, and it was seen in the USA, Canada and Latin America on the TV program Real TV.
-Senior Exercise and
Mary Ann Wilson's
-NATURAL FOODS THAT HEAL-
a salt that can carry an electrical charge. The cells of your body rely on
electrolytes to carry the electrical impulses responsible for muscle
contractions and nerve impulses to other sells. Without electrolytes, your
body wouldn't communicate efficiently. The balance of the electrolytes in our
bodies is essential for normal function of our cells and our organs.
Bicarbonate / Chloride / Potassium / Sodium / & Magnesium.
The esophagus is a tube surrounded by muscle that carries food and liquid from the mouth to the stomach. It is about 12 inches long on average. The normal adult esophagus is roughly three fourths of an inch across at its smallest point.
The wall of the esophagus has several layers. Cancer of the esophagus ( esophageal cancer) begins from the inner layer and grows outward. The layer that lines the inside of the esophagus is called the mucosa. The mucosa is made up with 2 parts: the epithelium and the lamina propria. The epithelium forms the lining of the esophagus and is made up of flat, thin cells called squamous cells. The lamina propria is a thin layer of connective tissue right under the epithelium.
The next layer is the submucosa. Some parts of the esophagus have mucus-secreting glands in this layer. The layer under the submucosa is a thick band of muscle called the muscularis propria. This layer of muscle contracts in a coordinated, rhythmic way to force food along the esophagus from the throat to the stomach. The outermost layer of the esophagus is formed by connective tissue. It is called the adventitia.
The upper part of the esophagus has a special area of muscle at its beginning that relaxes to open the esophagus when it senses food or liquid coming toward it. This muscle is called the upper esophageal sphincter. The lower part of the esophagus that connects to the stomach is called the gastroesophageal junction. There is a special area of muscle near the junction called the lower esophageal sphincter. The lower esophageal sphincter controls the movement of food from the esophagus into the stomach and it keeps the stomach’s acid and digestive enzymes out of the esophagus.
The stomach has strong acid and enzymes that digest food. The epithelium or lining of the stomach is made of glandular cells that release acid, enzymes, and mucus. These cells have special features that protect them from the stomach’s acid and digestive enzymes.
Some people have acid that can escape from the stomach into the esophagus. This is referred to as acid reflux or gastroesophageal reflux disease. In many cases, reflux can cause symptoms such as heartburn or a burning sensation radiating from the middle of the chest. However, in some cases, reflux can occur without any symptoms at all. If the reflux of stomach acid into the lower esophagus continues for a long time, the acid can cause injury to the lining of the esophagus, with abnormal glandular cells replacing the squamous cells that usually line the esophagus. These glandular cells usually look like the cells that line the stomach and are more resistant to stomach acid. When these glandular cells are noted in a person’s esophagus, he or she has a condition called Barrett esophagus.
There are 2 main types of esophageal cancer: squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma.
QT Fact: The human body, which is made up of between 55 and 75 percent water (lean people have more water in their bodies because muscle holds more water than fat), is in need of constant water replenishment.
*Oils high in monounsaturates are better oils for cooking. Olive oil is the best as it has the highest oxidation threshold: i.e. it remains stable at higher temperatures and does not easily become hydrogenated or saturated.
Green Tea (Camellia Sinensis) Theanine is an amino acid in green tea
Green tea and its extracts already have a positive reputation, with studies reporting they may offer protective effects against Alzheimer's and certain cancers, improve cardiovascular and oral health, and play a positive role in weight management.
The secret of green tea lies in the fact it is rich in catechin polyphenols, particularly epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). EGCG is a powerful anti-oxidant: besides inhibiting the growth of cancer cells, it kills cancer cells without harming healthy tissue. It has also been effective in lowering LDL cholesterol levels, and inhibiting the abnormal formation of blood clots. The latter takes on added importance when you consider that thrombosis (the formation of abnormal blood clots) is the leading cause of heart attacks and stroke.
like black tea is made from the leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis. The
difference between the three main types of tea is the way that they are
produced. Green tea is unfermented tea meaning that the leaves used for green
tea are steamed soon after been plucked in order to prevent the oxidation of
the leaves. In this way the leaves remain green and the active substances within
the leaves retain their qualities. Black teas on the other hand are made from
fermented leaves and as a result have less nutritional and enzyme content as
the green tea. Thus green and black teas have different chemical properties.
-Possible help in
slowing or stopping already damaged neurons in the brain, due to
Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease.
-Appears to be beneficial to weight loss.
Brewing green tea:
Dragon Well tea (also called Lung Ching) is the ultimate green tea. The name comes from West Lake region of China where the tea is produced. It is praised for its "four unique’s": jade color, vegetative aroma, mellow chestnut flavor and singular shape.
Sencha is the most popular of Japan's green teas. It has a lightly astringent taste along with a slight sweetness.
Unless specifically decaffeinated, green tea contains caffeine. Normal green tea itself may contain more caffeine than coffee, but the length of infusion with hot water and the number of times the leaves are reused can greatly alter caffeine intake. Experiments have shown after the first 5 minutes of brewing, green tea contains 32 mg caffeine. But if the same leaves are then used for a second and then a third five minute brew, the caffeine drops to 12 mg and then 4 mg, respectively.
While coffee and tea are both sources of caffeine, the amounts of caffeine in any single serving of these beverages varies significantly. An average serving of coffee contains the most caffeine, yet the same serving size of tea provides only 1/2 to 1/3 as much. One of the more confusing aspects of caffeine content is the fact that coffee contains less caffeine than tea when measured in its dry form. The caffeine content of a prepared cup of coffee is significantly higher than the caffeine content of a prepared cup of tea.
*Green teas contain two caffeine metabolites (caffeine-like substances):theophylline, which is stronger than caffeine, and theobromine, which is slightly weaker than caffeine.
Food poisoning can affect one person or it can occur as an outbreak in a group of people who all ate the same contaminated food.
Even though food poisoning is relatively rare in the United States, it affects between 60 and 80 million people worldwide each year and results in approximately 6 to 8 million deaths.
Food poisoning tends to occur
at picnics, school cafeterias, and large social functions. These are
situations where food may be left unrefrigerated too long or food preparation
techniques are not clean. Food poisoning often occurs from eating undercooked
meats, dairy products, or food containing mayonnaise (like coleslaw or potato
salad) that have sat out too long.
Food poisoning can be caused by: Staph aureus, E. coli enteritis, Salmonella, Cholera, Botulism (the worst of the worst), Mushrooms, Listeria, Fish poisoning and many other poisons.
Infants and elderly people have the greatest risk for food poisoning. You are also at higher risk if you have a serious medical condition, like kidney disease or diabetes, a weakened immune system, or you travel outside of the U.S. to areas where there is more exposure to organisms that cause food poisoning. Pregnant and breast feeding women have to be especially careful.
will usually recover from the most common types of food poisoning within a
couple of days. The goal is to make you feel better and avoid dehydration.
Drink any fluid (except milk or caffeinated beverages) to replace fluids lost
by diarrhea and vomiting. Children should be given an electrolyte sold in
drugstores, or small sips of Gatorade, this goes for adults too, it is great
at replacing your electrolytes. It will help, when you are felling a little
better, to nibble on a saltine cracker, it helps to provide a small amount of
food to your stomach. Don't eat solid foods until the diarrhea has passed,
and avoid dairy, which can worsen diarrhea.
For the most common causes of food poisoning, your doctor would NOT prescribe antibiotics.
Antibiotics can actually prolong diarrhea and keep the organism in your body longer. This can also cause havoc with your electrolytes, which are critical to your well-being.
If you have eaten toxins from mushrooms or shellfish, you will need to be seen right away. The emergency room doctor will take steps to empty out your stomach and remove the toxin.
ALWAYS WASH YOUR HANDS AFTER USING THE BATHROOM AND PRIOR TO HANDLING FOOD.
One Pound of body fat is equal to 3,500 calorie
Maintain a healthy weight. Fat, especially about the waist. It can put undue stress on your lower back. Lose weight by lowering your calorie intake and doing at least 30 minutes daily of exercise at least 5 days per week. Walking would also be great. Consider that walking helps eliminate many other health problems, fights weight gain, helps people with diabetes, due to circulation enhancement and in some cases helps with osteoporosis..
The gallbladder is a sac located under the liver. It stores and concentrates bile produced in the liver. Bile aids in the digestion of fats, and is released from the gallbladder into the upper small intestine (duodenum) in response to food ( fats). Conditions which slow or obstruct the flow of bile out of the gallbladder result in gallbladder disease.
bladder disease includes inflammation, infection, stones, or obstruction of
In 90% of acute cases, acute cholecystitis is caused by gallstones in the gallbladder. Severe illness, alcohol abuse and, rarely, tumors of the gallbladder may also cause cholecystitis. Acute cholecystitis causes bile to become trapped in the gallbladder. The build up of bile causes irritation and pressure in the gallbladder. This can lead to bacterial infection and perforation of the organ. The main symptom is abdominal pain -- particularly after a fatty meal -- that is located on the upper right side of the abdomen. Occasionally, nausea and vomiting or fever may occur.
Gallstones may be as small as a grain of sand, or they may become as large as an inch in diameter, depending on how long they have been forming.
Gallstones often have no symptoms and are usually discovered by a routine x-ray, surgery, or autopsy.
Gallstones are a common health problem worldwide. They are more common in women, and people over the age of 40.
Other risk factors include ethnic and hereditary factors, obesity, diabetes, liver cirrhosis, long-term intravenous nutrition, and some operations for peptic ulcers.
Symptoms usually start after a stone of sufficient size blocks the cystic duct or the common bile duct. The cystic duct drains the gallbladder, and the common bile duct is the main duct draining into the duodenum.
A stone blocking the opening from the gallbladder or cystic duct usually produces symptoms of biliary colic, which is right upper abdominal pain that feels like cramping. If the stone does not pass into the duodenum, but continues to block the cystic duct, acute cholecystitis results.
If the common bile duct is blocked for a long period of time, bacteria may grow behind the stone in the stagnant bile, producing symptoms of Cholangitis, which is a serious condition and usually requires hospitalization. Continued blockage of normal bile flow may also produce yellow (jaundice) skin and in the eyes..
Stones blocking the lower end of the common bile duct (where it enters the duodenum) may obstruct secretion from the pancreas, producing pancreatitis. This condition can also be very serious and may require hospitalization.
Gastric cancer generally comes in two forms. One is an adenocarcinoma, which is about 90 percent of them, and then the other 10 percent are less common forms, like gastrointestinal stromal tumors. That's a cancer of the supporting cells like connective tissue. They're also known as GIST tumors.
Stomach cancer in this country is more common after age 50, and there are a variety of risk factors associated with it. The risk factors for stomach cancer include an infection with Helicobacter pylori, which is also known as H. pylori. It also includes tobacco, obesity, being a male. If they have a history of ulcers, a family history of stomach cancer, people should look out for those things and get evaluated.
People suffering from early gastric cancer usually experience no symptoms. Even when the disease progresses, symptoms can be subtle.
Many people with stomach cancer will first just begin to lose weight, not really have a reason for why they're doing that. There's a symptom called early satiety, where we eat a little bit and we feel full, and that can be a sign. Other times, there can be some nausea, vomiting.
As the cancer begins growing, there might be some oozing of blood that could lead to fatigue or tiredness. Sometimes, you can get a skin rash or things like that, but most often you wouldn't have any symptoms.
The best test, by far, is what's called an upper endoscopy and that's an endoscopic procedure where the doctor puts down a lighted tube and looks into the stomach, and he or she can see whether there's any abnormality in the stomach. If there's an abnormality, they can biopsy right through that scope and take tissue and make the diagnosis.
The next steps are to decide whether or not the patient is a good candidate for major surgery. Then after that, after you think the patient may be a candidate, you want to do scans, typically CAT scans of the chest, abdomen and pelvis, to make sure there's no evidence that the cancer has already spread.
Like many cancers, it's important to understand the stages of stomach cancer, because that gives you some information on prognosis. The earliest stage is when the tumor is just in the stomach and hasn't spread into the wall of the stomach and that would be called a stage I. As the tumor spreads through the wall of the stomach, you get to stage II. When you begin to have lymph node involvement, you get to stage III. And if the tumor spreads to other organs, you have stage IV stomach cancer.
Gastric cancer can definitely be cured, if it's caught early enough. If you look at patients sort of across the board who have stomach cancers, and when they're surgically removed there's no involvement of the lymph nodes, then at least 50 percent of those patients are cured with the surgery alone.
Surgery for stomach cancer comes in two main forms. One is a total gastrectomy, which is a removal of the entire stomach, or a partial gastrectomy, which is removing part of the stomach. The partial gastrectomy is known also as a subtotal gastrectomy, less than total.
Surgery is the normal treatment for Early stage 1 Gastric. Later stages ( 2 –3- 4) of the cancer when they spread to the organs results in more radical surgeries and treatments. For stage IV stomach cancers, chemotherapy is the main treatment. There are many different types of drugs that are chemotherapy that are active in the disease.
Is a form of
diabetes found for the first time when a woman is pregnant. Out of every 100
pregnant women in the United States, three to eight get gestational diabetes.
Diabetes means that your blood glucose (also called blood sugar) is too high.
Your body uses glucose for energy. But too much glucose in your blood can be
harmful. When you are pregnant, too much glucose is not good for your baby.
Gestational diabetes generally has few symptoms and it is most commonly diagnosed by screening during pregnancy. Diagnostic tests detect high levels of glucose in blood samples.
Babies born to mothers with gestational diabetes are at increased risk of complications, primarily growth abnormalities and chemical imbalances such as low blood sugar. Gestational diabetes is a reversible condition and women who have adequate control of glucose levels can effectively decrease the associated risks and give birth to healthy babies.
Women with gestational diabetes are at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus after pregnancy, while their offspring are prone to developing childhood obesity, with type 2 diabetes later in life. Most patients are treated only with diet modification and moderate exercise but some take anti-diabetic drugs, including insulin therapy.
Untreated or uncontrolled gestational diabetes can mean problems for your baby, such as
If you have gestational diabetes, your health care team may recommend some extra tests to check on your baby, such as
Working closely with your health care team will help you give birth to a healthy baby.
Both you and your baby are at increased risk for type 2 diabetes for the rest of your lives.
How will gestational diabetes affects you
Often, women with gestational diabetes have no symptoms. However, gestational diabetes may
Gestational diabetes will probably go away after ther baby is born. However, the mother will be more likely to get type 2 diabetes later in life. The mother may also get gestational diabetes again if she get pregnant again.
Some women wonder whether breastfeeding is OK after they have had gestational diabetes. Breastfeeding is recommended for most babies, including those whose mothers had gestational diabetes.
diabetes is serious, even if you have no symptoms.
The "Chinese" Wolfberry, also called Goji Berries, contain over 18 amino acids (proportionally six times higher than bee pollen), 21 trace minerals, more beta carotene than carrots, and an astonishing 500 times more vitamin C by weight than oranges. It is also packed with vitamin B1, vitamin B6 and vitamin E.
Children & Weight
Children who are overweight are more likely to become overweight adults. They may develop type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease, and other illnesses that can follow them into adulthood. Overweight in children can also lead to stress, sadness and low self esteem. Involve the whole family in building healthy eating and physical activity habits. It benefits everyone and does not single out the child who is overweight
Acquired deafness is possibly a manifestation of a delayed-onset form of genetic deafness. Alternatively, "acquired" deafness may be due to damage to the ear from noise.
deafness similarly may or may not be genetic. It may be caused by a genetic
disease called Waardenburg syndrome. The fact is, more than half of
congenital hearing loss is inherited. Alternatively, congenital deafness may
be due to a condition or infection to which the mother was exposed during
pregnancy, such as rubella..
You are not alone and help is readily accessible.
headaches responds to different treatments. There are treatments for just
about every type of headache.
Acute sinus infection may be accompanied by a headache. In these patients, a common cold or nasal allergy progresses to increasing congestion, fever, and pain in the area of the involved sinus. This headache increases in severity when coughing or bending over. The pain tends to be dull rather than piercing or knifelike.
four pairs of sinuses. The frontal sinuses are located over the eyes, with
pain presenting in the forehead when these sinuses are infected. Infection of
the ethmoid sinuses, located in the deeper recesses of the nose rather than
in the front of the face, causes pain between and behind the eyes. The
deepest pair of sinuses, named the sphenoid sinuses, results in pain referred
to the back of the head. This is a rare occurrence. The maxillary sinuses are
located in the middle third of the face, below the eyes and to the side of
the nose. These are the most frequently infected sinuses, with pain across
the face or in the upper teeth on the affected side.
A tension headache usually is a mild to moderate pain over your head. Many people describe them as the felling of a tight band around their head. A tension headache may also cause pain in the back of your neck at the base of your skull.
Although headache pain sometimes can be severe, in most cases it's not the result of an underlying disease. The vast majority of headaches are so-called primary headaches. Besides tension headaches, these include migraines and cluster headaches.
In many cases, there's no clear cause for a tension headache. To name just a few, some triggers are hunger, lack of sleep and changes in sleeping patters. Managing a tension headache is often a balance between healthy habits, finding effective non drug treatments and using medications appropriately.
Most tension headaches respond to recommended doses of over-the- counter drugs, such as Acetaminophen (Tylenol) or Naproxen sodium (Aleve) or Ibuprofen (Advil). Using extra strength Excedrin helps some sufferers, as it is a combination of acetaminophen, aspirin and caffeine, do be cautious though, this should not be taken more than a few times a week.
Suddenly you start experiencing severe pain in your chest that starts to radiate out into your arms and up your jaw, Your maybe five miles to your nearest hospital or help, what are you to do? You only have about 10 Seconds left before losing consciousness. Immediate Help is at hand. START COUGHING REPEATEDLY AND VERY VIGOROUSLY. A DEEP BREATH SHOULD BE TAKEN BEFORE EACH COUGH AND THE COUGH MUST BE DEEP AND PROLONGED, AS WHEN PRODUCING SPUTUM FROM DEEP INSIDE THE CHEST AND A COUGH MUST BE REPEATED ABOUT EVERY 2 SECONDS WITHOUT LET UP UNTIL HELP ARRIVES, OR UNTIL THE HEART IS FELT TO BE BEATING NORMALLY AGAIN
Antioxidants are necessary in slowing down the development of plaque formation in the arteries. Taking vitamin A, C, E, and beta-carotene can really be of help, along with a proper diet.
911 if you have any chest pain that lasts for more than a few minutes, or
goes away and then comes back.
Most of the ways to avoid a heart attack are up to you.
Don't Skip Breakfast, 7:00 - Noon is when most people experience heart attacks. Eating breakfast appears to make the platelets less sticky and less likely to clump together, blocking the vital artery.
Watch your blood pressure, those who appear to overreact to stressful situations are much more prone to have heart trouble. Take a short walk it will help clear your mind and will calm you down. You will see things in a totally different light, usually.
Headache Tip: When you are experiencing a headache, instead of taking aspirin and doing damage to your insides, try drinking a can of cold Coca-Cola, laying down for 15-20 minutes with your eyes closed. Normally this will greatly diminish the headache. For those who do not drink coke, try eating a cup of coffee-flavored yogurt, it contains about as much caffeine as a 12-ounce can of coke. For extreme headaches, your doctor should be immediately consulted.
Unfortunately there are usually no symptoms or signs of hypertension. Statistics have shown that nearly one-third of those who have it don't know it. The only way to know if you have hypertension definitely is to have your blood pressure checked.
Normal blood pressure is below 120/80; blood pressure between 120/80 and 139/89 is called "pre–hypertension", and a blood pressure of 140/90 or above is considered high.
The top number, the systolic blood pressure, corresponds to the pressure in the arteries as the heart contracts and pumps blood forward into the arteries. The bottom number, the diastolic pressure, represents the pressure in the arteries as the heart relaxes after the contraction. The diastolic pressure reflects the lowest pressure to which the arteries are exposed.
Uncomplicated high blood pressure usually occurs without any symptoms (silently) and so hypertension has been labeled "the silent killer." It is called this because the disease can progress to finally develop any one or more of the several potentially fatal complications of hypertension such as heart attacks or strokes. Uncomplicated hypertension may be present and remain unnoticed for many years, or even decades. This happens when there are no symptoms, and those affected fail to undergo periodic blood pressure screening.
Some people with uncomplicated hypertension, however, may experience symptoms such as headache, dizziness, shortness of breath, and blurred vision.
If your blood pressure is extremely high, there may be certain symptoms to look out for, to name a few:
The goal of treatment is to reduce blood pressure so that you have a lower risk of complications.
There are many different medicines that can be used to treat high blood pressure. Such medicines include:
Medicines used if the blood pressure is very high may include:
Glucose is a form of sugar, after you eat, glucose molecules are absorbed into your bloodstream and carried to the cells, where they are used for energy. Insulin, a hormone produced by your pancreas, helps glucose enter cells. If you take in more glucose than your body needs at the time, your body stores the extra glucose in your liver and muscles in a form called glycogen. Your body can use the stored glucose whenever it is needed for energy between meals. Extra glucose can also be converted to fat and stored in fat cells. In most people, this raises blood sugar. If it doesn't, you have hypoglycemia, and your blood sugar can be dangerously low. You can also have Hypoglycemia "low blood sugar" without having diabetes. Hypoglycemia can occur in people with diabetes who take certain medications to keep their blood glucose levels in control. Usually hypoglycemia is mild and can easily be treated by eating or drinking something with carbohydrate. But left untreated, hypoglycemia can lead to loss of consciousness. Although hypoglycemia can happen suddenly, it can usually be treated quickly, bringing your blood glucose level back to normal.
Some medications, including some used to treat diabetes, are the most common cause of hypoglycemia. Other medications that can cause hypoglycemia include
If using any of these medications causes your blood glucose to drop, your doctor may advise you to stop using the drug or change the dosage.
Carbohydrates are the main dietary sources of glucose. Rice, potatoes, bread, tortillas, cereal, milk, fruit, and sweets are all carbohydrate-rich foods.
Some of the signs of low blood sugar are:
Hypoglycemia is usually a side effect of diabetes medicines for many. Eating or drinking something with carbohydrates can help. If it happens often, your physician may need to change your treatment plan.
Inhalants fall into the following categories:
Although different in makeup, nearly all abused inhalants produce effects similar to anesthetics, which act to slow down the body's functions. When inhaled via the nose or mouth into the lungs in sufficient concentrations, inhalants can cause intoxicating effects. Intoxication can last only a few minutes or several hours if inhalants are taken repeatedly. Initially, users may feel slightly stimulated; with successive inhalations, they may feel less inhibited and less in control; finally, a user can lose consciousness.
Sniffing highly concentrated amounts of the chemicals in solvents or aerosol sprays can directly induce heart failure and death. This is especially common from the abuse of fluorocarbons and butane-type gases. High concentrations of inhalants also cause death from suffocation by displacing oxygen in the lungs and then in the central nervous system so that breathing ceases. Other irreversible effects caused by inhaling specific solvents are as follows:
Serious but potentially maybe reversible effects include:
Young people are likely to abuse inhalants, in part because inhalants are readily available and inexpensive. Sometimes children unintentionally misuse inhalant products that are found in household products.
Parents should see that these substances are monitored closely so that they are not inhaled by young children.
Their Function & Failure
The kidneys are a pair of bean–shaped organs that lie on either side of the spine in the lower middle of the back. Each kidney weighs about ¼ pound and contains approximately one million filtering units called nephrons. Each nephron is made of a glomerulus and a tubule. The glomerulus is a miniature filtering or sieving device while the tubule is a tiny tube like structure attached to the glomerulus.
The kidneys are connected to the urinary bladder by tubes called ureters. Urine is stored in the urinary bladder until the bladder is emptied by urinating. The bladder is connected to the outside of the body by another tube like structure called the urethra.
kidneys function is to remove waste products and excess water from the blood.
The kidneys process about 200 liters of blood every day and produce about two
liters of urine. The waste products are generated from normal metabolic
processes including the breakdown of active tissues, ingested foods, and
other substances. The kidneys allow consumption of a variety of foods, drugs,
vitamins and supplements, additives, and excess fluids without worry that
toxic by–products will build up to harmful levels. The kidney also plays a
major role in regulating levels of various minerals such as calcium, sodium,
and potassium in the blood.
The signs of kidney disease
People in the early stages of kidney disease usually do not feel sick at all.
If your kidney disease gets worse, you may need to urinate more often or less often. You may feel tired or itchy. You may lose your appetite or experience nausea and vomiting. Your hands or feet may swell or feel numb. You may get drowsy or have trouble concentrating. Your skin may darken. You may have muscle cramps.
Acute Kidney failure
chronic kidney disease, acute kidney failure develops rapidly, over days or
weeks. Acute kidney failure usually develops in response to a disorder that
directly affects the kidney, its blood supply, or urine flow from it. Acute
kidney failure usually does not cause permanent damage to the kidneys. With
treatment of the underlying condition, it is often reversible, with complete
recovery. In some cases, though, it may progress to chronic kidney disease.
If the stone is too large to pass easily, pain continues as the muscles in the wall of the tiny ureter try to squeeze the stone along into the bladder. As a stone grows or moves, blood may appear in the urine. As the stone moves down the urethra closer to the bladder, you may feel the need to urinate more often or feel a burning sensation during urination, if you can urinate at all..
Fortunately, surgery is not usually necessary. Most kidney stones can pass through the urinary system with plenty of water (2 to 3 quarts a day) to help move the stone along. Often, you can stay home during this process, drinking fluids and taking pain medication as needed. The doctor usually asks you to save the passed stone(s) for testing. (You can catch it in a cup or tea strainer used only for this purpose.)
If fever and chills accompany any of these symptoms, an infection may be present. It is recommended that you visit your physician, as they can prescribe you a pain medication, as the period of passing a stone (gravel) can take between 3 and 16 hours, and be very painful.
Alzheimer's Association - www.alz.org/
American Academy of Sleep Medicine - www.asda.org/
American Anorexia/Bulemia Association - www.aabainc.org/
American Association for Respiratory Cure - www.aarc.org/
American Cancer Society - www.cancer.org/
American Council of the Blind - www.acb.org/
American Counseling Association - www.counseling.org/
American Diabetes Association - www.diabetes.org/
American Heart Association - www.americanheart.org/
American Liver Foundation - gi.ucsf.edu/alf/alf.html
American Lung Association - www.lungusa.org/
American Pain Foundation - www.painfoundation.org/
American Urological Association- http://www.urologyhealth.org/
Department of Health and Human Services - www.dhhs.gov/
Epilepsy foundation- www.epilepsyfoundation.org
National Autism Association- http://www.nationalautismassociation.org
National Cancer Institute - www.nci.nih.gov/
National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine - altmed.od.nih.gov/ncc/am/
National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence - www.ncadd.org/
National Council on the Aging - http://www.ncoa.org/
Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases - www.niaid.nih.gov/
National Kidney Foundation - www.kidney.org/
National Library of Medicine - www.nlm.nih.gov/
National Multiple Sclerosis Society - www.nmss.org/
National Organization for Diseases - www.rarediseases.org/
National Safety Council - www.nsc.org/
National Stroke Association - www.stroke.org/
Tip: By washing your hair in the evening,
you will be removing pollen keeping it from settling on pillows and
Transfat Tip: What you should know about "Transfats"
(Hydrogenated Oils) Aside from the fact that they can kill you.
-It's Deadly Poisoning effects-
is a Neurotoxin, too much lead
in your system can cause irreparable damage to the brain and the
Is the largest organ inside your body,
as well as one of the most important. The liver has many functions, including
changing food into energy and cleaning alcohol and poisons from the blood.
Your liver also makes bile, a yellowish green liquid that helps with
There are effective medicines for "some" liver diseases. Some treat only the complications of the disease, which may be all that is needed if the liver is not failing. Other times, medical treatment will only delay the inevitable need for a transplant.
Liver transplantation offers an acceptable treatment for many forms of end-stage liver disease. However, a liver transplant is not a treatment for certain diseases, such as some infections and types of cancer, because they likely will reoccur in the new organ.
It is important to understand liver transplantation is not a cure. Caring for the transplanted liver is a lifelong commitment, requiring frequent blood tests and daily medications for the rest of the life of the recipient.
Tomato Juice is excellent for regeneratining liver growth.
Some specific exercises can help your back. One is to gently stretch your back muscles. Lie on your back with your knees bent and slowly raise your left knee to your chest. Press your lower back against the floor. Hold for 5 seconds. Relax and repeat the exercise with your right knee. Do 10 of these exercises for each leg, switching legs.
frequently to stretch or walk around. Sit tall with your neck straight, as
slouching irritates the back muscles. Always utilize a straight back and low
back support .
See a doctor immediately if your back pain:
A slipped disk (also called a herniated disk)
happens when a disk between the bones of the spine bulges and presses on
nerves. This is often caused by twisting while lifting. But many people won't
know what caused their slipped disk. In most cases, slipped disks and other
back pain can be relieved by following a few simple methods.
Low back (Lumbar Spine) injuries muscle strain or spasm, sprains of ligaments, joint problems or a "slipped disk." The most common cause is using your back muscles in activities you're not used to, lifting activities you normally do not Perform.
Most low back pain can be treated without surgery. Treatment involves using analgesics, reducing inflammation, restoring proper function and strength to the back, and preventing recurrence of the injury. Most patients with back pain recover without residual functional loss. Patients should contact a doctor if there is not a noticeable reduction in pain and inflammation after 72 hours of self-care.
Although ice and heat (the use of cold and hot compresses) have never been scientifically proven to quickly resolve low back injury, compresses may help reduce pain and inflammation and allow greater mobility for some individuals. As soon as possible following trauma, patients should apply a cold pack or a cold compress (such as a bag of ice or bag of frozen vegetables wrapped in a towel) to the tender spot several times a day for up to 20 minutes. After 2 to 3 days of cold treatment, they should then apply heat (such as a heating lamp or hot pad) for brief periods to relax muscles and increase blood flow. Warm baths may also help relax muscles. Patients should avoid sleeping on a heating pad, which can cause burns and lead to additional tissue damage.
Medications are often used to treat acute and chronic low back pain. Effective pain relief may involve a combination of prescription drugs and over-the-counter remedies. Patients should always check with a doctor before taking drugs for pain relief. Certain medicines, even those sold over the counter, are unsafe during pregnancy, may conflict with other medications, may cause side effects including drowsiness, or may lead to liver damage.
Bed rest — 1–2 days at most. Studies have found that persons who continued their activities without bed rest following onset of low back pain appeared to have better back flexibility than those who rested in bed for a week. Other studies suggest that bed rest alone may make back pain worse and can lead to secondary complications such as depression, decreased muscle tone, and blood clots in the legs. Patients should resume activities as soon as possible. At night or during rest, patients should lie on one side, with a pillow between the knees (some doctors suggest resting on the back and putting a pillow beneath the knees).
Exercise may be the most effective way to speed recovery from low back pain and help strengthen back and abdominal muscles. Maintaining and building muscle strength is particularly important for persons with skeletal irregularities. Doctors and physical therapists can provide a list of gentle exercises that help keep muscles moving and speed the recovery process. A routine of back-healthy activities may include stretching exercises, swimming, walking, and movement therapy to improve coordination and develop proper posture and muscle balance. Any mild discomfort felt at the start of these exercises should disappear as muscles become stronger. One very good exercise is to gently stretch your back muscles. Lie on your back with your knees bent and slowly raise your left knee to your chest. Press your lower back against the floor. Hold for 5 seconds. Relax and repeat the exercise with your right knee. Do 10 of these exercises for each leg, switching legs. The key to this exercise is keeping your center lower back flat on the floor.
But, if pain is more than mild and lasts more than
15 minutes during exercise, patients should stop exercising and contact a
Also under study for patients with degenerative disc disease is artificial spinal disc replacement surgery. The damaged disc is removed and a metal and plastic disc about the size of a quarter is inserted into the spine. Ideal candidates for disc replacement surgery are persons between the ages of 20 and 60 who have only one degenerating disc, do not have a systemic bone disease such as osteoporosis, have not had previous back surgery, and have failed to respond to other forms of nonsurgical treatment. Compared to other forms of back surgery, recovery from this form of surgery appears to be shorter and the procedure has fewer complications.
The lumbar spine (lower back)
provides a foundation to carry the weight of the upper body. It also houses
the nerves that control the lower body. With aging, degenerative changes in
the spine can occur. The disks between the vertebrae (bones) may become
dehydrated, and the joints may become overgrown due to arthritis. Over time,
these changes can also lead to Stenosis,
which is the narrowing of the lumbar spinal canal, causing the pinching of
the nerves that go to the skin and muscles of the legs. Sometimes, the
pinched nerves become inflamed, causing pain in the buttocks and/or legs.
A possible new key to having
a pain-free back:
your medications, especially those in the morning, it turns out that
grapefruit juice can directly or indirectly interact in important ways with a
number of medications, including high blood pressure medications! This is
especially since grapefruit juice is consumed by approximately one fifth of
Americans for breakfast a time when medications are also commonly taken.
Side effects can occur when commencing, decreasing/increasing dosages, or ending a drug or medication regimen. Side effects may also lead to non-compliance with prescribed treatment. When side effects of a drug or medication are severe, the dosage may be adjusted or a second medication may be prescribed. Lifestyle or dietary changes may also help to minimize side effects.
Everyone experiences anxiety at one time or another — “butterflies in the stomach” before giving a speech or sweaty palms during a job interview are common symptoms. Other symptoms include irritability, uneasiness, jumpiness, feelings of apprehension, rapid or irregular heartbeat, stomachache, nausea, faintness, and breathing problems.
Anxiety is often manageable and mild, but sometimes it can present serious problems. A high level or prolonged state of anxiety can make the activities of daily life difficult or impossible. People may have generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) or more specific anxiety disorders such as panic, phobias, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
Both antidepressants and antianxiety medications are used to treat anxiety disorders. The broad-spectrum activity of most antidepressants provides effectiveness in anxiety disorders as well as depression. The first medication specifically approved for use in the treatment of OCD was the tricyclic antidepressant clomipramine (Anafranil). The SSRIs, fluoxetine (Prozac), fluvoxamine (Luvox), paroxetine (Paxil), and sertraline (Zoloft) have now been approved for use with OCD. Paroxetine has also been approved for social anxiety disorder (social phobia), GAD, and panic disorder; and sertraline is approved for panic disorder and PTSD. Venlafaxine (Effexor) has been approved for GAD.
Anti-anxiety medications include the benzodiazepines, which can relieve symptoms within a short time. They have relatively few side effects: drowsiness and loss of coordination are most common; fatigue and mental slowing or confusion can also occur.
Major depression, the kind of depression that will most likely benefit from treatment with medications, is more than just “the blues.” It is a condition that lasts 2 weeks or more, and interferes with a person’s ability to carry on daily tasks and enjoy activities that previously brought pleasure. Depression is associated with abnormal functioning of the brain. An interaction between genetic tendency and life history appears to determine a person’s chance of becoming depressed. Episodes of depression may be triggered by stress, difficult life events, side effects of medications, or medication/substance withdrawal, or even viral infections that can affect the brain.
Depressed people will seem sad, or “down,” or may be unable to enjoy their normal activities. They may have no appetite and lose weight (although some people eat more and gain weight when depressed). They may sleep too much or too little, have difficulty going to sleep, sleep restlessly, or awaken very early in the morning. They may speak of feeling guilty, worthless, or hopeless; they may lack energy or be jumpy and agitated. They may think about killing themselves and may even make a suicide attempt. Some depressed people have delusions (false, fixed ideas) about poverty, sickness, or sinfulness that are related to their depression. Often feelings of depression are worse at a particular time of day, for instance, every morning or every evening.
Not everyone who is depressed has all these symptoms, but everyone who is depressed has at least some of them, co-existing, on most days. Depression can range in intensity from mild to severe. Depression can co-occur with other medical disorders such as cancer, heart disease, stroke, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, and diabetes. In such cases, the depression is often overlooked and is not treated. If the depression is recognized and treated, a person’s quality of life can be greatly improved.
Antidepressants are used most often for serious depressions, but they can also be helpful for some milder depressions. Antidepressants are not “uppers” or stimulants, but rather take away or reduce the symptoms of depression and help depressed people feel the way they did before they became depressed.
OVER-THE-COUNTER PAIN MEDICINES
Over-the-counter (OTC) medications are good for many types of pain. OTC medicines include:
Acetaminophen is a non-aspirin pain reliever. It can be used to lower a fever and soothe headaches and other common aches and pains. However, acetaminophen does not reduce swelling (inflammation). This medicine is easier on the stomach than other pain medications, and it is safer for children. It can, however, be harmful to the liver if you take more than the recommended dose. See: Acetaminophen overdose
NSAIDs include aspirin, naproxen, and ibuprofen. These medicines relieve pain, but they also reduce inflammation caused by injury, arthritis, or fever. NSAIDs work by reducing the production of hormone-like substances that cause pain.
DO NOT give aspirin to children. Reye syndrome is associated with the use of aspirin to treat children with viral infections, such as chicken pox or the flu.
If you have high blood pressure, kidney disease, or a history of gastrointestinal bleeding, you should talk to your health care provider before using any over-the-counter NSAID.
PRESCRIPTION PAIN MEDICINES
Prescription medications may be needed for other types of pain. COX-2 inhibitors are a type of prescription painkiller that block an inflammation-promoting substance called COX-2. This class of drugs was initially believed to work as well as traditional NSAIDs, but with fewer stomach problems. However, numerous reports of heart attacks and stroke have prompted the FDA to re-evaluate the risks and benefits of the COX-2s. Patients should ask their doctor whether a COX-2 drug is appropriate and safe for them.
Narcotic painkillers are very strong, potentially habit-forming medicines used to treat severe pain. They include morphine and codeine.
Talk to your doctor if your pain lasts longer than a few days, if over-the-counter pain medications do not relieve your pain, or if other symptoms develop. A pain specialist may be needed to help control long-term pain.
ALTERNATIVES TO PAIN MEDICINE
You might ask your doctor about alternatives to pain medicines, which include:
Complementary and Alternative Medicine (Also called CAM)Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is the term for medical products and practices that are not part of standard care. Standard care is what medical doctors, doctors of osteopathy and allied health professionals, such as registered nurses and physical therapists, practice. Alternative medicine means treatments that you use instead of standard ones. Complementary medicine means nonstandard treatments that you use along with standard ones. Examples of CAM therapies are acupuncture, chiropractic and herbal medicine.
manufactured by the pancreas, insulin transports sugar from your blood to
your cells and is key player to regulating body weight.
Some people have found that certain foods or ingredients can trigger
headaches, especially when they are combined with other triggers. These
foods and ingredients include There is no cure for migraines. Treatment focuses on relieving symptoms and preventing additional attacks. There are different types of medicines to relieve symptoms. They include triptan drugs, ergotamine drugs, and pain relievers. The sooner you take the medicine, the more effective it is. There are also other things you can do to feel better:
is also known as migraine-associated vertigo. of people who have migraines have some vestibular symptoms. These symptoms affect balance, cause dizziness, or both. People of any age, including children, may have vestibular migraines.
There are also a number of factors that can trigger a migraine. These factors vary from person to person, and they include:
Some people have found that certain foods or ingredients can trigger headaches, especially when they are combined with other triggers. These foods and ingredients include
There is no cure for migraines. Treatment focuses on relieving symptoms and preventing additional attacks.
There are different types of medicines to relieve symptoms. They include triptan drugs, ergotamine drugs, and pain relievers. The sooner you take the medicine, the more effective it is.
There are also other things you can do to feel better:
autoimmune disease that affects the central nervous system (CNS). The CNS
consists of the brain, spinal cord, and the optic nerves. Surrounding and
protecting the nerve fibers of the CNS is a fatty tissue called myelin, which
helps nerve fibers conduct electrical impulses
Symptoms may be persistent or may cease from time to time. Most patients have episodic patterns of attacks and remissions throughout the disease course. Symptoms may remit completely, leaving no residual damage, or partially leaving degrees of permanent impairment.
Because the symptoms that define the clinical picture of MS are the result of nerve lesions causing disturbances in electrical conduction in one or more areas of the CNS, the nature of the symptoms that occur is determined by the location of the lesion. For example: an optic nerve lesion may cause blurred vision; a brain stem lesion may cause dizziness or double vision; a spinal cord lesion may cause coordination/balance problems.
shown that early treatment delays disability, presumably by decreasing the
injury to the nervous system caused by the disease. In the last seven years
there has been a significant progress in the treatment of MS, They come in
two categories. One being treatments that address symptom management, and
treatments that change the course of the disease by modifying the number and
severity of attacks and the progression of disability. There are now
different products which have won FDA approval as disease modifying
treatments for MS. Your attending physician can direct you to those that
would best work for you.
INCLUDING: "Ischemia" Nocturnal (calf, toe, arch, thigh) claudication
All of the muscles in our body contract and relax as we move around, pick things up, walk or carry out our various other activities in the course of a day. Sometimes a muscle will contract spontaneously, that is, involuntarily. This is known as a spasm. If the strength and length of time that the spasm lasts is significant, it becomes what's known as a cramp. Muscle cramps are usually intensely painful and uncomfortable and can last for a few seconds or up to fifteen minutes and sometimes longer. They can also recur several times before settling completely. Anyone who has experienced muscle cramps will cringe at the thought! They attack the muscles of the extremities; particularly the legs, feet and toes, and calf muscles are particularly vulnerable. The muscle concerned will become rigid and may even look distorted until the spasm passes.
Muscle cramps is somewhat of a mystery but it is believed that muscle fatigue and not stretching muscles enough results in a malfunctioning of the way the body handles normal contractions. Dehydration is the depletion of electrolytes and this is thought be a major contributing factor. Muscle cramps can occur when a person exercises in hot conditions and sweats profusely, resulting in the loss of fluids.
If people over exert themselves, especially if their body is unaccustomed to particular activities, the supply of oxygen to the muscles can be diminished. The buildup of waste products leads to spasm and in turn, cramping.
Many suffer's report that their muscle cramps occur mostly
at night when they are relaxing.
Take a hot shower or warm bath, or apply an ice massage to the cramped muscle.
Ischemia is the term used to describe a situation when there is insufficient circulation to tissue. When blood flow to a muscle is inadequate, the muscle will cramp. The pain that accompanies the cramp prompts us to walk or rub the cramp which in turn results in increased circulation. Ischemic cramping typically occurs at night and is called nocturnal claudication. Muscle cramping due to ischemia can also occur with exercise and is called intermittent claudication. Doctors will often ask patients with poor circulation to describe how far they can walk before the cramp and will use this as a measure of their peripheral vascular disease.
The most common metabolic deficiency that causes foot and leg cramping is low potassium. Hypokalemia (low potassium) can result from over exercise, use of diuretics (water pills) and a host of other reasons. Potassium is one of the two primary molecules that controls how our muscles work. In addition to potassium, sodium works to initiate muscle contraction and an imbalance or lack of these two salts will result in cramping
Biomechanics is the science of how the body moves. The biomechanics of walking and running is quite complex. The act of walking is a finely tuned symphony of brain messages and muscle contraction. If an imbalance is found in muscle groups and one group is forced to work too much, muscle cramping can occur. Muscle cramping happens often in the foot as evidenced by a cramp of the big toe or calf. As with ischemic cramping, we will be forced to walk off the cramp and in this case affecting the biomechanics. Biomechanical cramping can be helped with supportive shoes and arch supports
Being overweight or obese increases the risk of many diseases and health conditions, including the following:
You health care provider should refer you to an endocrinologist about your obesity if:
Several diets are somewhat effective ways of losing weight, but the only way one will be successful in losing weight is for you to consume fewer calories than what you are expending.
Current guidelines recommend drug treatment for individuals, especially those with other obesity-related health conditions, those who have failed to respond adequately to dietary and behavioral modifications. Presently there are a limited number of medications now available to treat your obesity. those must be prescribed by your physician and monitored closely.
Any bone can be affected, but of special concern are fractures of the hip and spine. A hip fracture almost always requires hospitalization and major surgery. It can impair a person's ability to walk unassisted and may cause prolonged or permanent disability or even death. Spinal or vertebral fractures also have serious consequences, including loss of height, severe back pain, and deformity.
Risk factors include
Facts and Figures
What Is Bone?
Bone is living, growing tissue. It is made mostly of collagen, a protein that provides a soft framework, and calcium phosphate, a mineral that adds strength and hardens the framework.
This combination of collagen and calcium makes bone both flexible and strong, which in turn helps it to withstand stress. More than 99 percent of the body's calcium is contained in the bones and teeth. The remaining 1 percent is found in the blood.
Throughout your lifetime, old bone is removed (resorption) and new bone is added to the skeleton (formation). During childhood and teenage years, new bone is added faster than old bone is removed. As a result, bones become larger, heavier, and denser. Bone formation outpaces resorption until peak bone mass (maximum bone density and strength) is reached around age 30. After that time, bone resorption slowly begins to exceed bone formation.
For women, bone loss is fastest in the first few years after menopause, and it continues into the postmenopausal years. Osteoporosis - which mainly affects women but may also affect men - will develop when bone resorption occurs too quickly or when replacement occurs too slowly. Osteoporosis is more likely to develop if you did not reach optimal peak bone mass during your bone-building years.
Certain risk factors are linked to the development of osteoporosis and contribute to an individual's likelihood of developing the disease. Many people with osteoporosis have several risk factors, but others who develop the disease have no known risk factors. There are some you cannot change and others you can.
Risk factors you cannot change:
· Gender - Your chances of developing osteoporosis are greater if you are a woman. Women have less bone tissue and lose bone faster than men because of the changes that happen with menopause.
· Age - The older you are, the greater your risk of osteoporosis. Your bones become thinner and weaker as you age.
· Body size - Small, thin-boned women are at greater risk.
· Ethnicity - Caucasian and Asian women are at highest risk. African American and Hispanic women have a lower but significant risk.
· Family history - Fracture risk may be due, in part, to heredity. People whose parents have a history of fractures also seem to have reduced bone mass and may be at risk for fractures.
Risk factors you can change:
· Sex hormones - Abnormal absence of menstrual periods (amenorrhea), low estrogen level (menopause), and low testosterone level in men can bring on osteoporosis.
· Anorexia nervosa - Characterized by an irrational fear of weight gain, this eating disorder increases your risk for osteoporosis.
· Calcium and vitamin D intake - A lifetime diet low in calcium and vitamin D makes you more prone to bone loss.
· Medication use - Long-term use of glucocorticoids and some anticonvulsants can lead to loss of bone density and fractures.
· Lifestyle - An inactive lifestyle or extended bed rest tends to weaken bones.
· Cigarette smoking - Cigarettes are bad for bones as well as the heart and lungs.
· Alcohol intake - Excessive consumption increases the risk of bone loss and fractures.
· Thin skinned
· taking thyroid medication or steroid-based drugs for asthma, arhritis or cancer.
To reach optimal peak bone mass and continue building new bone tissue as you age, there are several factors you should consider.
Calcium: An inadequate supply of calcium over a lifetime contributes to the development of osteoporosis. Many published studies show that low calcium intake appears to be associated with low bone mass, rapid bone loss, and high fracture rates. National nutrition surveys show that many people consume less than half the amount of calcium recommended to build and maintain healthy bones. Good sources of calcium include low-fat dairy products, such as milk, yogurt, cheese, and ice cream; dark green, leafy vegetables, such as broccoli, collard greens, bok choy, and spinach; sardines and salmon with bones; tofu; almonds; and foods fortified with calcium, such as orange juice, cereals, and breads. Depending upon how much calcium you get each day from food, you may need to take a calcium supplement.
Calcium needs change during one's lifetime. The body's demand for calcium is greater during childhood and adolescence, when the skeleton is growing rapidly, and during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Postmenopausal women and older men also need to consume more calcium. Also, as you age, your body becomes less efficient at absorbing calcium and other nutrients. Older adults also are more likely to have chronic medical problems and to use medications that may impair calcium absorption.
Vitamin D: Vitamin D plays an important role in calcium absorption and in bone health. It is made in the skin through exposure to sunlight. While many people are able to obtain enough vitamin D naturally, studies show that vitamin D production decreases in the elderly, in people who are housebound, and for people in general during the winter. Depending on your situation, you may need to take vitamin D supplements to ensure a daily intake of between 400 to 800 IU of vitamin D. Massive doses are not recommended.
Exercise: Like muscle, bone is living tissue that responds to exercise by becoming stronger. Weight-bearing exercise is the best for your bones because it forces you to work against gravity. Examples include walking, hiking, jogging, stair climbing, weight training, tennis, and dancing.
Smoking: Smoking is bad for your bones as well as for your heart and lungs. Women who smoke have lower levels of estrogen compared to nonsmokers, and they often go through menopause earlier. Smokers also may absorb less calcium from their diets.
Alcohol: Regular consumption of 2 to 3 ounces a day of alcohol may be damaging to the skeleton, even in young women and men. Those who drink heavily are more prone to bone loss and fractures, because of both poor nutrition and increased risk of falling.
Medications that cause bone loss: The long-term use of glucocorticoids (medications prescribed for a wide range of diseases, including arthritis, asthma, Crohn's disease, lupus, and other diseases of the lungs, kidneys, and liver) can lead to a loss of bone density and fractures. Bone loss can also result from long-term treatment with certain antiseizure drugs - such as phenytoin (Dilantin¹) and barbiturates; gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) drugs used to treat endometriosis; excessive use of aluminum-containing antacids; certain cancer treatments; and excessive thyroid hormone. It is important to discuss the use of these drugs with your physician and not to stop or change your medication dose on your own.
¹ Brand names included in this publication are provided as examples only, and their inclusion does not mean that these products are endorsed by the National Institutes of Health or any other Government agency. Also, if a particular brand name is not mentioned, this does not mean or imply that the product is unsatisfactory.
Preventive medications: Various medications are available for preventing and treating osteoporosis. See section entitled "Therapeutic Medications."
Osteoporosis is often called the "silent disease" because bone loss occurs without symptoms. People may not know that they have osteoporosis until their bones become so weak that a sudden strain, bump, or fall causes a hip to fracture or a vertebra to collapse. Collapsed vertebrae may initially be felt or seen in the form of severe back pain, loss of height, or spinal deformities such as kyphosis (severely stooped posture).
Following a comprehensive medical assessment, your doctor may recommend that you have your bone mass measured. A bone mineral density (BMD) test is the best way to determine your bone health. BMD tests can identify osteoporosis, determine your risk for fractures (broken bones), and measure your response to osteoporosis treatment. The most widely recognized bone mineral density test is called a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry or DXA test. It is painless - a bit like having an x ray, but with much less exposure to radiation. It can measure bone density at your hip and spine. Bone density tests can:
A comprehensive osteoporosis treatment program includes a focus on proper nutrition, exercise, and safety issues to prevent falls that may result in fractures. In addition, your physician may prescribe a medication to slow or stop bone loss, increase bone density, and reduce fracture risk.
Nutrition: The foods we eat contain a variety of vitamins, minerals, and other important nutrients that help keep our bodies healthy. All of these nutrients are needed in balanced proportion. In particular, calcium and vitamin D are needed for strong bones and for your heart, muscles, and nerves to function properly. (See Prevention section for recommended amounts of calcium.)
Exercise: Exercise is an important component of an osteoporosis prevention and treatment program. Exercise not only improves your bone health, but it increases muscle strength, coordination, and balance, and leads to better overall health. While exercise is good for someone with osteoporosis, it should not put any sudden or excessive strain on your bones. As extra insurance against fractures, your doctor can recommend specific exercises to strengthen and support your back.
Therapeutic Medications: Currently, alendronate, raloxifene, risedronate, and ibandronate are approved by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for preventing and treating postmenopausal osteoporosis. Teriparatide is approved for treating the disease in postmenopausal women and men at high risk for fracture. Estrogen/hormone therapy (ET/HT) is approved for preventing postmenopausal osteoporosis, and calcitonin is approved for treatment.
· Bisphosphonates - Alendronate (Fosamax), risedronate (Actonel), and ibandronate (Boniva) are medications from the class of drugs called bisphosphonates. Like estrogen and raloxifene, these bisphosphonates are approved for both prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Alendronate is also approved to treat bone loss that results from glucocorticoid medications like prednisone or cortisone and is approved for treating osteoporosis in men. Risedronate is approved to prevent and treat glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis and to treat osteoporosis in men.
Alendronate and risedronate have been shown to increase bone mass and reduce the incidence of spine, hip, and other fractures. Ibandronate has been shown to reduce the incidence of spine fractures.
Alendronate is available in daily and weekly doses, while alendronate plus vitamin D is available in a weekly dose. Risedronate is available in daily and weekly doses, while risedronate with calcium is available in a weekly dose. Ibandronate is available in a monthly dose and as an intravenous injection administered once every three months.
Oral bisphosphonates should be taken on an empty stomach and with a full glass of water first thing in the morning. It is important to remain in an upright position and refrain from eating or drinking for at least 30 minutes after taking a bisphosphonate.
Side effects for all bisphosphonates include gastrointestinal problems such as difficulty swallowing, inflammation of the esophagus, and gastric ulcer. There have been rare reports of osteonecrosis of the jaw and of visual disturbances in people taking bisphosphonates.
Some bisphosphonates are fortified with calcium and vitamin D. These nutrients are important for everyone, and people should include adequate amounts of them in their diets.
· Raloxifene - Raloxifene (Evista) is approved for the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. It is from a class of drugs called Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators (SERMs) that appear to prevent bone loss in the spine, hip, and total body. Raloxifene has beneficial effects on bone mass and bone turnover and can reduce the risk of vertebral fractures. While side effects are not common with raloxifene, those reported include hot flashes and blood clots in the veins, the latter of which is also associated with estrogen therapy. Additional research studies on raloxifene will continue for several more years.
· Calcitonin - Calcitonin (Miacalcin, Fortical) is a naturally occurring hormone involved in calcium regulation and bone metabolism. In women who are at least 5 years past menopause, calcitonin slows bone loss, increases spinal bone density, and according to anecdotal reports, relieves the pain associated with bone fractures. Calcitonin reduces the risk of spinal fractures and may reduce hip fracture risk as well. Studies on fracture reduction are ongoing. Calcitonin is currently available as an injection or nasal spray. While it does not affect other organs or systems in the body, injectable calcitonin may cause an allergic reaction and unpleasant side effects including flushing of the face and hands, frequent urination, nausea, and skin rash. The only side effect reported with nasal calcitonin is a runny nose.
· Teriparatide - Teriparatide (Forteo) is an injectable form of human parathyroid hormone. It is approved for postmenopausal women and men with osteoporosis who are at high risk for having a fracture. Teriparatide stimulates new bone formation in both the spine and the hip. It also reduces the risk of vertebral and nonvertebral fractures in postmenopausal women. In men, teriparatide reduces the risk of vertebral fractures. However, it is not known whether teriparatide reduces the risk of nonvertebral fractures. Side effects include nausea, dizziness, and leg cramps. Teriparatide is approved for use for up to 24 months.
· Estrogen/Hormone Therapy - Estrogen/hormone therapy (ET/HT) has been shown to reduce bone loss, increase bone density in both the spine and hip, and reduce the risk of hip and spine fractures in postmenopausal women. ET/HT is approved for preventing postmenopausal osteoporosis and is most commonly administered in the form of a pill or skin patch. When estrogen - also known as estrogen therapy or ET - is taken alone, it can increase a woman's risk of developing cancer of the uterine lining (endometrial cancer). To eliminate this risk, physicians prescribe the hormone progestin - also known as hormone therapy or HT - in combination with estrogen for those women who have not had a hysterectomy. Side effects of ET/HT include vaginal bleeding, breast tenderness, mood disturbances, blood clots in the veins, and gallbladder disease.
The Women's Health Initiative, a large Government-funded research study, recently demonstrated that the drug Prempro, which is used in hormone therapy, is associated with a modest increase in the risk of breast cancer, stroke, and heart attack. The WHI also demonstrated that estrogen therapy is associated with an increase in the risk of stroke. It is unclear whether estrogen therapy is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer or cardiovascular events. A large study from the National Cancer Institute indicated that long-term use of estrogen therapy may be associated with an increased risk of ovarian cancer. It is unclear whether hormone therapy carries a similar risk.
Any estrogen therapy should be prescribed for the shortest period of time possible. When used solely for the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis, any ET/HT regimen should only be considered for women at significant risk of osteoporosis, and nonestrogen medications should be carefully considered first.
Preventing falls is a special concern for men and women with osteoporosis. Falls can increase the likelihood of fracturing a bone in the hip, wrist, spine, or other part of the skeleton. In addition to the environmental factors listed below, falls can also be caused by impaired vision and/or balance, chronic diseases that affect mental or physical functioning, and certain medications, such as sedatives and antidepressants. It is important that individuals with osteoporosis be aware of any physical changes that affect their balance or gait, and that they discuss these changes with their health care provider. Here are some tips to help eliminate the environmental factors that lead to falls.
· Use a cane or walker for added stability.
· Wear rubber-soled shoes for traction.
· Walk on grass when sidewalks are slippery.
· In winter, carry salt or kitty litter to sprinkle on slippery sidewalks.
· Be careful on highly polished floors that become slick and dangerous when wet.
· Use plastic or carpet runners when possible.
· Keep rooms free of clutter, especially on floors.
· Keep floor surfaces smooth but not slippery.
· Wear supportive, low-heeled shoes even at home.
· Avoid walking in socks, stockings, or slippers.
· Be sure carpets and area rugs have skid-proof backing or are tacked to the floor.
· Be sure stairwells are well lit and that stairs have handrails on both sides.
· Install grab bars on bathroom walls near tub, shower, and toilet.
· Use a rubber bath mat in shower or tub.
· Keep a flashlight with fresh batteries beside your bed.
· If using a step stool for hard-to-reach areas, use a sturdy one with a handrail and wide steps.
· Add ceiling fixtures to rooms lit by lamps.
· Consider purchasing a cordless phone so that you don't have to rush to answer the phone when it rings, or so that you can call for help if you do fall.
Is cancer that begins in the ovaries. The cause is unknown and Ovarian cancer is hard to detect early on. Although there are some warning symptoms. A PAP smear will not provide evidence of Ovarian Cancer, as it is a test used for evidence of cervical cancer.
There are also other considerations for those who:
ovarian cancer is found and treated, the better the chance for recovery.
Unfortunately, ovarian cancer is hard to detect early. Often being the case,
women with ovarian cancer have no symptoms or just mild symptoms until the
disease is in an advanced stage and hard to treat. In women, the ovaries produce ova
(egg) for reproduction. The ova travel through the fallopian tubes into the
uterus where the fertilized "egg" implants and develops into a
fetus. Cancer can also begin in the fallopian (extremely rare) tubes. The
ovaries are also the main source of the female hormones estrogen and
progesterone. One ovary is located on each side of the uterus in the pelvis.
Treatment normally falls into the following, but not always. After tests are done, your specialist team will recommend 1 or more treatment options. The choice of treatment depends largely on the type of cancer and the stage of the disease. In patients who did not have surgery as their first treatment, the exact stage may not be known. Treatment then is based on other available information.
Other factors that could play a part in choosing the best treatment plan might include your general state of health, whether you plan to have children, and other personal considerations. Age alone is not a determining factor, as older women tolerate ovarian cancer treatments well. Be sure you understand all the risks and side effects of the various therapies before making a decision about treatment.
treatments for ovarian cancer are surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation
therapy. In some cases 2 or even all of these treatments will be recommended.
The pancreas is shaped like a tadpole, and is located deep in the abdomen, between the stomach and spine. Located partially behind the stomach and the remainder packed in the curve of the small intestine (duodenum). It digests your food and produces insulin, the main chemical for balancing the sugar level in the blood. The gland is as integral part of the digestive system. One normally is unaware of it, until a problem occurs. Because of it's deep location, it explains why many symptoms of pancreatic cancer do not appear until a tumor has grown large enough to interfere with the function of the gallbladder, stomach, small intestine and liver. The signs of pancreatic cancer are like many other illnesses, and there may be no signs in the first stages. You should see your doctor if you have any of the following: nausea, loss of appetite, weight loss without trying to lose weight, pain in the upper or middle of your abdomen, or yellowing of your skin (jaundice). If you are concerned about cancer of the pancreas, you will want a lot more information about Pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of death to both men and women in the United States.
Five-year survival rates approach 40% if the cancers are surgically removed while they are still small and have not spread to the lymph nodes.
Not all problems
with the Pancreas denote cancer. There are other conditions such as the gland
stops working properly. Depending upon how badly the pancreas functions there
are two problems. The first is that food is poorly absorbed, which causes
weight loss, and there is diarrhea, often rather fatty as the undigested fat
causes pale, bulky and smelly motions. The second is, if too little insulin
is made, diabetes develops with frequent passage of urine and weight loss.
These two problems need not occur together.
It is usual to rest the pancreas by not allowing the patient to eat anything until it has settled. However, one person in four will have a very bad attack (severe acute pancreatitis) which may require a prolonged stay in the intensive care unit and operations to remove parts of the gland that have been destroyed by the attack. Although excessive drinking of alcohol or gallstones are commonly identified causes of acute pancreatitis (two thirds of all cases), your doctor will want to do various tests when you have recovered from the attack to make sure that the diagnosis is definite and that you are unlikely to get another one.
Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI). The virus infects the skin and mucous membranes. There are more than 40 HPV types that can infect the genital areas of men and women, including the skin of the penis, vulva (area outside the vagina), and anus, and the linings of the vagina, cervix, and rectum. You cannot see HPV. Most people who become infected with HPV do not even know they have it.
Most people with HPV do not develop symptoms or health problems. But sometimes, certain types of HPV can cause genital warts in men and women. Other HPV types can cause cervical cancer and other less common cancers, such as cancers of the vulva, vagina, anus, and penis. The types of HPV that can cause genital warts are not the same as the types that can cause cancer.
HPV types are often referred to as “low-risk” (wart-causing) or “high-risk” (cancer-causing), based on whether they put a person at risk for cancer. In 90% of cases, the body’s immune system clears the HPV infection naturally within two years. This is true of both high-risk and low-risk types.
Genital warts usually appear as small bumps or groups of bumps, usually in the genital area. They can be raised or flat, single or multiple, small or large, and sometimes cauliflower shaped. They can appear on the vulva, in or around the vagina or anus, on the cervix, and on the penis, scrotum, groin, or thigh. Warts may appear within weeks or months after sexual contact with an infected person. Or, they may not appear at all. If left untreated, genital warts may go away, remain unchanged, or increase in size or number. They will not turn into cancer.
Cervical cancer does not have symptoms until it is quite advanced. For this reason, it is important for women to get screened regularly for cervical cancer.
Other less common HPV-related cancers, such as cancers of the vulva, vagina, anus and penis, also may not have signs or symptoms until they are advanced.
Genital HPV is passed on through genital contact, most often during vaginal and anal sex. A person can have HPV even if years have passed since he or she had sex. Most infected persons do not realize they are infected or that they are passing the virus to a sex partner.
Very rarely, a pregnant woman with genital HPV can pass HPV to her baby during vaginal delivery. In these cases, the child may develop warts in the throat or voice box – a condition called recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP).
HPV can cause normal cells on infected skin or mucous membranes to turn abnormal. Most of the time, you cannot see or feel these cell changes. In most cases, the body fights off HPV naturally and the infected cells then go back to normal.
· Sometimes, low-risk types of HPV can cause visible changes that take the form of genital warts.
HPV infection. Approximately 79 million Americans are currently infected with HPV, with roughly 14 million people becoming newly infected each year. Most men and women — about 80 percent of sexually active people — are infected with HPV at some point in their lives
Genital warts. About 1% of sexually active adults in the U.S. have genital warts at any one time.
Cervical cancer. The American Cancer Society estimates that in 2020, 13,170 women in the United States will be diagnosed with invasive cervical cancer.
Other HPV-related cancers are much less common than cervical cancer. The American Cancer Society estimates that in 2000, there will be:
According to the American Cancer Society, every year in the United States, more than 33,000 men and women are diagnosed with cancers caused by HPV
cause most cervical cancers
and genital warts. The vaccine is recommended for 11 and 12 year-old girls.
It is also recommended for girls and women age 13 through 26 who have not yet
been vaccinated or completed the vaccine series.
Individuals can also lower their chances of getting HPV by being in a mutually faithful relationship with someone who has had no or few sex partners. However, even people with only one lifetime sex partner can get HPV, if their partner was infected with HPV. For those who are not in long-term mutually monogamous relationships, limiting the number of sex partners and choosing a partner less likely to be infected may lower the risk of HPV. Partners less likely to be infected include those who have had no or few prior sex partners. But it may not be possible to determine if a partner who has been sexually active in the past is currently infected.
There are important steps girls and women can take to prevent cervical cancer. The HPV vaccine can protect against most cervical cancers (see above). Cervical cancer can also be prevented with routine cervical cancer screening and follow-up of abnormal results. The Pap test can identify abnormal or pre-cancerous changes in the cervix so that they can be removed before cancer develops. An HPV DNA test, which can find high-risk HPV on a woman’s cervix, may also be used with a Pap test in certain cases. The HPV test can help healthcare professionals decide if more tests or treatment are needed. Even women who got the vaccine when they were younger need regular cervical cancer screening because the vaccine does not protect against all cervical cancers.
There is currently no vaccine licensed to prevent HPV-related diseases in men. Studies are now being done to find out if the vaccine is also safe in men, and if it can protect them against HPV and related conditions. The FDA will consider licensing the vaccine for boys and men if there is proof that it is safe and effective for them. There is also no approved screening test to find early signs of penile or anal cancer. Some experts recommend yearly anal Pap tests for gay and bisexual men and for HIV-positive persons because anal cancer is more common in these populations. Scientists are still studying how best to screen for penile and anal cancers in those who may be at highest risk for those diseases.
Generally, cesarean delivery is not recommended for women with genital warts to prevent RRP in their babies. This is because it is unclear whether cesarean delivery actually prevents RRP in infants and children.
The HPV test on the market is only used as part of cervical cancer screening. There is no general test for men or women to check one’s overall “HPV status.” HPV usually goes away on its own, without causing health problems. So an HPV infection that is found today will most likely not be there a year or two from now. For this reason, there is no need to be tested just to find out if you have HPV now. However, you should get tested for signs of disease that HPV can cause, such as cervical cancer.
· Genital warts are diagnosed by visual inspection. Some health care providers may use acetic acid, a vinegar solution, to help identify flat warts. But this is not a sensitive test so it may wrongly identify normal skin as a wart.
· Cervical cell changes (early signs of cervical cancer) can be identified by routine Pap tests. The HPV test can identify high-risk HPV types on a woman’s cervix, which can cause cervical cell changes and cancer.
There is no treatment for the virus itself, but a healthy immune system can usually fight off HPV naturally. There are treatments for the diseases that HPV can cause:
Visible genital warts can be removed by patient-applied medications, or by treatments performed by a health care provider. Some individuals choose to forego treatment to see if the warts will disappear on their own. No one treatment is better than another.
Cervical cancer is most treatable when it is diagnosed and treated early. There are new forms of surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy available for patients. But women who get routine Pap testing and follow up as needed can identify problems before cancer develops. Prevention is always better than treatment.
Other HPV-related cancers are also more treatable when diagnosed and treated early. There are new forms of surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy available for patients.
Tip: Many people who have food allergies to nuts do not realize that nut oils in massage lotions, oils and creams may cause the same reaction. With nut allergies on the rise, therapist need to be aware of your allergy and use nut-oil free massage products.
Facts about Honey and Cinnamon
Today’s science says that even though honey is sweet, when it is taken in the right dosage as a medicine, it does not harm even diabetic patients.
HEART DISEASES: Make a paste of honey and cinnamon powder, put it on toast instead of jelly and jam and eat it regularly for breakfast. It reduces the cholesterol and could potentially save one from heart attack. Also, even if you have already had an attack studies show you could be kept miles away from the next attack. Regular use of cinnamon honey strengthens the heartbeat. In America and Canada, various nursing homes have treated patients successfully and have found that as one ages the arteries and veins lose their flexibility and get clogged; honey and cinnamon revitalize the arteries and the veins.
ARTHRITIS: Arthritis patients can benefit by taking one cup of hot water with two tablespoons of honey and one small teaspoon of cinnamon powder. When taken daily even chronic arthritis can be cured. In a recent research conducted at the Copenhagen University, it was found that when the doctors treated their patients with a mixture of one tablespoon Honey and half teaspoon Cinnamon powder before breakfast, they found that within a week (out of the 200 people so treated) practically 73 patients were totally relieved of pain -- and within a month, most all the patients who could not walk or move around because of arthritis now started walking without pain.
BLADDER INFECTIONS: Take two tablespoons of cinnamon powder and one teaspoon of honey in a glass of lukewarm water and drink it. It destroys the germs in the bladder....who knew?
CHOLESTEROL: Two tablespoons of honey and three teaspoons of Cinnamon Powder mixed in 16 ounces of tea water given to a cholesterol patient was found to reduce the level of cholesterol in the blood by 10 percent within two hours. As mentioned for arthritic patients, when taken three times a day, any chronic cholesterol-could be cured. According to information received in the said Journal, pure honey taken with food daily relieves complaints of cholesterol.
COLDS: Those suffering from common or severe colds should take one tablespoon lukewarm honey with 1/4 spoon cinnamon powder daily for three days. This process will cure most chronic cough, cold, and, clear the sinuses, and it's delicious too!
STOMACH: Honey taken with cinnamon powder cures stomach ache and also is said
to clear stomach ulcers from its root.
IMMUNE.SYSTEM: Daily use of honey and cinnamon powder strengthens the immune system and protects the body from bacterial and viral attacks. Scientists have found that honey has various vitamins and iron in large amounts. Constant use of Honey strengthens the white blood corpuscles (where DNA is contained) to fight bacterial and viral diseases.
INDIGESTION: Cinnamon powder sprinkled on two tablespoons of honey taken before food is eaten relieves acidity and digests the heaviest of meals.
INFLUENZA: A scientist in Spain has proved that honey contains a natural 'Ingredient' which kills the influenza germs and saves the patient from flu.
LONGEVITY: Tea made with honey and cinnamon powder, when taken regularly, arrests the ravages of old age. Use four teaspoons of honey, one teaspoon of cinnamon powder, and three cups of boiling water to make a tea. Drink 1/4 cup, three to four times a day. It keeps the skin fresh and soft and arrests old age. Life spans increase and even a 100-year-old will start performing the chores of a 20-year-old.
OR SORE THROAT: When throat has a tickle or is raspy, take one tablespoon of honey and sip until gone. Repeat every three hours until throat is without symptoms.
PIMPLES: Three tablespoons of honey and one teaspoon of cinnamon powder paste. Apply this paste on the pimples before sleeping and wash it off the next morning with warm water. When done daily for two weeks, it removes all pimples from the root.
SKIN INFECTIONS: Applying honey and cinnamon powder in equal parts on the affected parts cures eczema, ringworm and all types of skin Infections.
LOSS: Daily in the morning one half hour before breakfast and on an empty
stomach, and at night before sleeping, drink honey and cinnamon powder boiled
in one cup of water.1 teaspoon honey
CANCER: Recent research in Japan and Australia has revealed that advanced cancer of the stomach and bones have been cured successfully. Patients suffering from these kinds of cancer should daily take one tablespoon of honey with one teaspoon of cinnamon powder three times a day for one month.
FATIGUE: Recent studies have shown that the sugar content of honey is more helpful rather than being detrimental to the strength of the body. Senior citizens who take honey and cinnamon powder in equal parts are more alert and flexible. Dr. Milton, who has done research, says that a half tablespoon of honey taken in a glass of water and sprinkled with cinnamon powder, even when the vitality of the body starts to decrease, when taken daily after brushing and in the afternoon at about 3:00 P.M., the vitality of the body increases within a week.
BAD BREATH: People of South America, gargle with one teaspoon of honey and cinnamon powder mixed in hot water first thing in the morning so their breath stays fresh throughout the day.
HEARING LOSS: Daily morning and night honey and cinnamon powder, taken in equal parts restores hearing.
The Elusive Diseases
Lyme Disease:-"spirochete bacteria") is tick borne. Many symptoms are similar to those of other diseases. The fever, muscle aches, and fatigue of Lyme disease can be mistaken for viral infections, such as influenza or infectious mononucleosis. Joint pain can be mistaken for other types of arthritis, such as rheumatoid arthritis, and neurologic signs can mimic those caused by other conditions, such as multiple sclerosis. On the other hand, other infections, arthritis, or neurologic diseases can be misdiagnosed as Lyme disease. Along with Lyme disease, ticks can transmit other diseases like: Tick Paralysis, Tularemia, Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, Colorado Tick Fever, Masters Disease, STARI (southern tick associated rash illness) and there seems to be a connection between Lyme disease and Morgellon's disease. Usually begins with a red bulls-eye rash on the skin, and this can be anywhere. Symptoms begin with rash, joint pain (like that of arthritis), fever, later delusion state of confusion, lethargy.
Seek medical attention immediately.
Some additional signs you should not ignore:
The symptoms of pneumonia:
Most people who develop pneumonia initially have symptoms of a cold which are then followed by a high fever (sometimes as high as 104 degrees Fahrenheit), shaking chills, and a cough with sputum production. The sputum is usually discolored and sometimes bloody. Patients may become short of breath. Chest pain may develop if the outer aspects of the lung are involved. This pain is usually sharp and worsens when taking a deep breath, known as pleuritic pain.
In other cases of pneumonia, there can be a slow onset of symptoms. A worsening cough, headaches, and muscle aches may be the only symptoms. In some people with pneumonia, coughing is not a major symptom because the infection is located in areas of the lung away from the larger airways. At times, the individual's skin color may change and become dusky or purplish (a condition known as "cyanosis") due to their blood being poorly oxygenated.
babies who develop pneumonia often do not have any specific signs of a chest
infection, but develop a fever, appear quite ill, and can become lethargic.
Elderly people may also have few symptoms with pneumonia.
While for most people, a trip to the hospital isn't needed, pneumonia isn't to be taken lightly.
The most common physician suggestions for the treatment of pneumonia:
Bronchitis / Pneumonia? Bronchitis is in the Bronchial Tubes , while Pneumonia is in the sacs of the lungs.
The Contour of your face is referred to as "Physiognomy"
Hydrogenated Tip: Avoid Margarine for life and anything else that is hydrogenated (this means hydrogen is added, changing the molecular structure of the substance). FYI, Margarine's molecular structure differs just slightly from that of Plastic CHOOSE BUTTER INSTEAD! but also minimize your consumption of it.
One out of every eight babies born in the United States in 2007, were Premature births.
The prostate is a walnut-sized gland that forms part of the male reproductive system. The gland is made of two lobes, or regions, enclosed by an outer layer of tissue. As the diagrams show, the prostate is located in front of the rectum and just below the bladder, where urine is stored. The prostate also surrounds the urethra, the canal through which urine passes out of the body.
Scientists do not know all the prostate's functions. One of its main roles, though, is to squeeze fluid into the urethra as sperm move through during sexual climax. This fluid, which helps make up semen, energizes the sperm and makes the vaginal canal less acidic.
Benign Prostatic HyperplasiaIt is common for the prostate gland to become enlarged as a man ages. Doctors call this condition benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), or benign prostatic hypertrophy.
As the prostate enlarges, the layer of tissue surrounding it stops it from expanding, causing the gland to press against the urethra like a clamp on a garden hose. The bladder wall becomes thicker and irritable. The bladder begins to contract even when it contains small amounts of urine, causing more frequent urination. Eventually, the bladder weakens and loses the ability to empty itself, so some of the urine remains in the bladder. The narrowing of the urethra and partial emptying of the bladder cause many of the problems associated with BPH.
Many symptoms of BPH stem from obstruction of the urethra and gradual loss of bladder function, which results in incomplete emptying of the bladder. The symptoms of BPH vary, but the most common ones involve changes or problems with urination, such as
Fact about Prostate Cancer
There are different types of treatment for patients with prostate cancer.
Different types of treatment are available for patients with prostate cancer. Some treatments are standard (the currently used treatment), and some are being tested in clinical trials. A treatment clinical trial is a research study meant to help improve current treatments or obtain information on new treatments for patients with cancer. When clinical trials show that a new treatment is better than the standard treatment, the new treatment may become the standard treatment. Patients may want to think about taking part in a clinical trial. Some clinical trials are open only to patients who have not started treatment.
If one is diagnosed with Prostate Cancer, the following are options.
Four types of standard treatment are used:
Watchful waiting is closely monitoring a patient’s condition without giving any treatment until symptoms appear or change. This is usually used in older men with other medical problems and early- stage disease.
Patients in good health are usually offered surgery as treatment for prostate cancer. The following types of surgery are us
· Pelvic lymphadenectomy: A surgical procedure to remove the lymph nodes in the pelvis. A pathologist views the tissue under a microscope to look for cancer cells. If the lymph nodes contain cancer, the doctor will not remove the prostate and may recommend other treatment.
· Radical prostatectomy: A surgical procedure to remove the prostate, surrounding tissue, and seminal vesicles. There are 2 types of radical prostatectomy:
o Retropubic prostatectomy: A surgical procedure to remove the prostate through an incision (cut) in the abdominal wall. Removal of nearby lymph nodes may be done at the same time.
o Perineal prostatectomy: A surgical procedure to remove the prostate through an incision (cut) made in the perineum (area between the scrotum and anus). Nearby lymph nodes may also be removed through a separate incision in the abdomen.
· Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP): A surgical procedure to remove tissue from the prostate using a resectoscope (a thin, lighted tube with a cutting tool) inserted through the urethra. This procedure is sometimes done to relieve symptoms caused by a tumor before other cancer treatment is given. Transurethral resection of the prostate may also be done in men who cannot have a radical prostatectomy because of age or illness.
Impotence and leakage of urine from the bladder or stool from the rectum may occur in men treated with surgery. In some cases, doctors can use a technique known as nerve-sparing surgery. This type of surgery may save the nerves that control erection. However, men with large tumors or tumors that are very close to the nerves may not be able to have this surgery.
Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment that uses high-energy x-rays or other types of radiation to kill cancer cells or keep them from growing. There are two types of radiation therapy. External radiation therapy uses a machine outside the body to send radiation toward the cancer. Internal radiation therapy uses a radioactive substance sealed in needles, seeds, wires, or catheters that are placed directly into or near the cancer. The way the radiation therapy is given depends on the type and stage of the cancer being treated.
There is an increased risk of bladder cancer and/or rectal cancer in men treated with radiation therapy.
Impotence and urinary problems may occur in men treated with radiation therapy.
Hormone therapy is a cancer treatment that removes hormones or blocks their action and stops cancer cells from growing. Hormones are substances produced by glands in the body and circulated in the bloodstream. In prostate cancer, male sex hormones can cause prostate cancer to grow. Drugs, surgery, or other hormones are used to reduce the production of male hormones or block them from working.
Hormone therapy used in the treatment of prostate cancer may include the following
· Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists can prevent the testicles from producing testosterone. Examples are leuprolide, goserelin, and buserelin.
· Antiandrogens can block the action of androgens (hormones that promote male sex characteristics). Two examples are flutamide and nilutamide.
· Drugs that can prevent the adrenal glands from making androgens include ketoconazole and aminoglutethimide.
· Orchiectomy is a surgical procedure to remove one or both testicles, the main source of male hormones, to decrease hormone production.
· Estrogens (hormones that promote female sex characteristics) can prevent the testicles from producing testosterone. However, estrogens are seldom used today in the treatment of prostate cancer because of the risk of serious side effects.
Hot flashes, impaired sexual function, loss of desire for sex, and weakened bones may occur in men treated with hormone therapy. Other side effects include diarrhea, nausea, and pruritus (itching).
Cryosurgery is a treatment that uses an instrument to freeze and destroy prostate cancer cells. This type of treatment is also called cryotherapy.
Impotence and leakage of urine from the bladder or stool from the rectum may occur in men treated with cryosurgery.
Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment that uses drugs to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. When chemotherapy is taken by mouth or injected into a vein or muscle, the drugs enter the bloodstream and can reach cancer cells throughout the body (systemic chemotherapy). When chemotherapy is placed directly into the spinal column, an organ, or a body cavity such as the abdomen, the drugs mainly affect cancer cells in those areas (regional chemotherapy). The way the chemotherapy is given depends on the type and stage of the cancer being treated.
Biologic therapy is a treatment that uses the patient’s immune system to fight cancer. Substances made by the body or made in a laboratory are used to boost, direct, or restore the body’s natural defenses against cancer. This type of cancer treatment is also called biotherapy or immunotherapy.
High-intensity focused ultrasound
High-intensity focused ultrasound is a treatment that uses ultrasound (high-energy sound waves) to destroy cancer cells. To treat prostate cancer, an endorectal probe is used to make the sound wave
Proton beam radiation therapy
Proton beam radiation therapy is a type of high-energy, external radiation therapy that targets tumors with streams of protons (small, positively charged particles). This type of radiation therapy is being studied in the treatment of prostate cancer.
Estrogen: Stimulates breast cells and signals
the uterus to develop a protective lining in preparation for a possible
fertilized egg each month. But it affects much more than reproduction- it
also plays a vital role in bone and skin health, promotes clear thinking and
concentration, and boots confidence.
Bending over Tip: When lifting or bending down to pick something up, begin by acting as though you are going to sit down, squatting down, bending at your knees, with your hands on your knees, then pick up the item, using your legs to bring you back upright, What a difference! and much less strain on your back.
(herpes zoster) is an outbreak of rash or blisters on the skin that is caused
by the same virus that causes chickenpox — the varicella-zoster virus. The
first sign of shingles is often burning or tingling pain, or sometimes
numbness or itch, in one particular location on only one side of the body.
After several days or a week, a rash of fluid-filled blisters, similar to
chickenpox, appears in one area on one side of the body. Shingles pain can be
mild or intense. Some people have mostly itching; some feel pain from
the gentlest touch or breeze. The most common location for shingles is
a band, called a dermatome, spanning one side of the trunk around the
waistline, following along the affected nerve. Anyone who has had chickenpox
is at risk for shingles. The blisters follow the path of individual nerves
that comes out of the spinal cord (called dermatomal pattern). The entire
path of the nerve may be involved or there may be areas with blisters and
areas without blisters. Generally, only one nerve level is involved. In a
rare case, more than one nerve will be involved. Eventually, the blisters pop
and the area starts to ooze. The area will then crust over and heal. The
whole process may take three to four weeks from start to finish. On occasion,
the pain will be present but the blisters may never appear. This can be a
very confusing cause of local pain!
The severity and duration of an attack of shingles can be significantly reduced by immediate treatment with antiviral drugs, which include acyclovir, valcyclovir, or famcyclovir. Antiviral drugs may also help stave off the painful after-effects of shingles known as postherpetic neuralgia. Other treatments for postherpetic neuralgia include steroids, antidepressants, anticonvulsants, and topical agents.
There are several effective treatments for shingles. Drugs that fight viruses (antivirals), such as acyclovirfamciclovir (Famvir) can reduce the duration of the rash if started early (which must be administered within 48 hours of the appearance of the rash) for use in people 60 and older who have had chickenpox.
When the vaccine becomes more widely available, many older adults will for the first time have a means of preventing shingles. Researchers found that giving older adults the vaccine reduced the expected number of later cases of shingles by half. And in people who still got the disease despite immunization, the severity and complications of shingles were dramatically reduced. The shingles vaccine is only a preventive therapy and is not a treatment for those who already have shingles or postherpetic neuralgia
For most healthy people, the lesions heal, the pain subsides within 3 to 5 weeks, and the blisters leave no scars. However, shingles is a serious threat in immunosuppressed individuals — for example, those with HIV infection or who are receiving cancer treatments that can weaken their immune systems. People who receive organ transplants are also vulnerable to shingles because they are given drugs that suppress the immune system.
The most common complication of shingles is postherpetic neuralgia. This occurs when the pain associated with shingles persists beyond one month, even after the rash is gone. The pain can be severe and debilitating and occurs primarily in persons over the age of 50. There is some evidence that treating shingles with steroids and antiviral agents can reduce the duration and occurrence of postherpetic neuralgia. However, the decrease is minimal.
A person with a shingles rash can pass the virus to someone, usually a child, who has never had chickenpox, but the child will develop chickenpox, not shingles. A person with chickenpox cannot communicate shingles to someone else. Shingles comes from the virus hiding inside the person's body, not from an outside source.
Sleep Tip: If you have difficulty getting a full night's sleep, take 3 mg of Melatonin
a few minutes before retiring. Check with your Physician prior to use.
Carefully read the label instructions before taking. If you experience
very Vivid & Colorful dreams, you should
"Reduce the dosage
Yoga can reduce
anxiety, lower blood pressure and help your heart work more efficiently,
according to recent date from the National Institute of Health. Regular yoga
practice can increase joint flexibility and balance, which may also be
helpful in preventing injuries during physical activity.
Sunburn results when the amount of exposure to the sun or other ultraviolet light source exceeds the ability of the body's protective pigment, melanin, to protect the skin. Sunburn in a very light-skinned person may occur in less than 15 minutes of midday sun exposure, while a dark-skinned person may tolerate the same exposure for hours.
It is now recognized that sunburn and sun exposure should not be treated as insignificant. Deaths have resulted from acute sun exposure, and significant temporary disability is experienced by millions of sunburned people each year.
Unlike a thermal burn, sunburn is not immediately apparent. By the time the skin starts to become painful and red, the damage has been done. The pain is worst between 6 and 48 hours after sun exposure. In severe sunburns, blistering of the skin may occur.
Swelling of the skin, especially in the legs, is common. Toxins are released with sunburn, and fever is not uncommon. Skin peeling usually begins between three and eight days after exposure.
The long-term consequences of years of overexposure to the sun are significant. Just one blistering sunburn doubles the likelihood of developing malignant melanoma. Chronic sun exposure causes premature wrinkling and aging of the skin. Age spots are a result of sun exposure.
Skin cancer (basal cell and squamous cell cancer) is directly related to the amount of sun exposure (determined by skin pigmentation and hours in the sun). Finally, sun exposure and ultraviolet damage have been implicated in the development of cataracts.
Very effective sunscreens have been developed that protect from UVA and UVB (long and short wavelengths of ultraviolet light), which are the components of sunlight responsible for burning and cancerous changes in the skin.
Sunscreen, protective clothing, and ultraviolet-protected sunglasses are all recommended to prevent excessive sun exposure. Wearing a sunscreen with high sun protection factor (SPF) is recommended. The higher SPF numbers indicate greater protection. Unfortunately, there is no way to get a "safe tan" from the sun.
The sun is responsible for over 90 percent of all skin cancers, including "Basal cell carcinoma" BCCs, which occur most frequently on the sun-exposed areas of the body: face, ears, neck, scalp, shoulders and back.
If you do get a sunburn:
Sunburn Tip: When faced with the small blisters and itching from Sunburn, gently rub on household vinegar with a sponge or soft towel. Relief will soon be found, this also works for minor household kitchen burns. Rub Vitamin E oil on blisters after a few hours and you will be amazed at how fast you heal. Parents beware; studies have shown that even one blistering sunburn can double your child's risk of later developing Malignant Melanoma or Skin Cancer. Even when you/they are in the shade. The sun's rays reflect off water, sand, concrete and other surfaces. Use a Minimum sun protection factor (SPF) of 30 or higher and a lip balm to protect the lips..
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The content in this "Health" section of quicktip.com was development through extensive research in medical journals.
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