- First Amendment – Establishment
Clause, Free Exercise Clause; freedom of speech, of the press, Freedom
of Religion, and of assembly; right to petition,
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment
of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the
freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to
assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.
- Second Amendment – Militia
(United States), Sovereign state, right to keep and bear arms.
A well-regulated Militia, being necessary to the
security of a free State, the right of the People to keep and bear Arms,
shall not be infringed.
- Third Amendment –
Protection from quartering of troops.
No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any
house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a
manner to be prescribed by law.
- Fourth Amendment –
Protection from unreasonable search and seizure.
The right of the people to be secure in their persons,
houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures,
shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable
cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the
place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.
- Fifth Amendment – due process,
double jeopardy, self-incrimination, eminent domain.
No person shall be held to answer for any capital, or
otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury,
except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia,
when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any
person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life
or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness
against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due
process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without
- Sixth Amendment – Trial
by jury and rights of the accused; Confrontation Clause,
speedy trial, public trial, right to counsel
In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy
the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State
and district where in the crime shall have been committed, which district
shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the
nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses
against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his
favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defense.
- Seventh Amendment – Civil
trial by jury.
In suits at common law, where the value in controversy
shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved,
and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any court of
the United States, than according to the rules of
the common law.
- Eighth Amendment –
Prohibition of excessive bail and cruel and unusual punishment.
Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines
imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
- Ninth Amendment –
Protection of rights not specifically enumerated in the Bill of
The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights,
shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.
- Tenth Amendment – Powers
of States and people.
The powers not delegated to the United States by the
Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the
States respectively, or to the people.